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ver the past five years, the Council for the promotion of La Francophonie in Japan has made great efforts to reinforce the value of speaking French and promote the cultural diversity of La Francophonie in Japan. We are proud of the results accomplished and we remain committed to do more.

For instance, we want to organize activities outside Tokyo. There are several signs showing an increased interest for La Francophonie in Japan. Each meeting of the Council provides an overview of the currents activities and future projects in support of La Francophonie. れまでの5年間において、 日本フラ ンコフォニー振興会議は、 フランス 語の使用価値を高め、 日本における フランコフォニーの多様性を広める よう努力して参りました。」振興会議長のサミール・ アルール駐日モロッコ王国大使はこう述べた。 「これ までの成果を誇りに思っていますが、私どもはより 一層精進して参ります。東京以外の地域でも活動も 広げようと考えております。 」. 実際、 日本におけるフランコフォニーの波及の兆しは 見えている。 このことは二十数カ国の大使やフランス と日本の様々なフランス語圏の公的機関を取りまとめ る日本フランコフォニー振興会議メンバーにとって非 常に勇気づけられるものであろう。 振興会議では、 フラ ンコフォニーを振興するための活動や今後のプロジェ クトの概要を全員が共有出来るよう務めている。.

We are witnessing new gestures of openness and cooperation towards La Francophonie from the Office of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. Indeed, there is a person assigned to promote La Francophonie within the communications team.

The City of Tokyo will host the Olympics Games in This is exciting news because French is an official Olympic language. Moreover, a third of all participating countries are part of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF. In this perspective, the Council wishes to work closely with the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to facilitate intercultural relations with the Japanese and make the Games a success.

The Council for the promotion of La Francophonie in Japan was established on May 27th, , following a general assembly attended by 23 countries and IOF member states represented in Japan. In setting up this initiative, the Council was one year ahead of a resolution adopted at the 13th Francophonie Summit in Montreux, requiring member countries of the IOF to unite their efforts in promoting La Francophonie abroad.

In Japan, the original idea to unite the French promotion efforts by creating a Council of La Francophonie was launched a few years earlier by the Japanese Society of French Didactics SJDF , an organization with over French teachers in Japan. Being a visionary leader, the SJDF has always been an invaluable contributor allowing us to carry out joint projects in various universities.

We should also mention the French Institute in Japan, FrancoJapanese House and TV-5 Monde as prime collaborators with the Council. Official picture of the General Assembly of the Members of the Council for the promotion of La Francophonie in Japan which was held at the Canadian Embassy, Tokyo Our activities, for example, include the annual celebration of the International Francophonie Day that attracts nearly a thousand participants in Tokyo. This event is also held elsewhere in Japan—Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya, Sendai and Yokohama.

Hundreds of students have joined and played an active role in there events that were held for the last six years in various universities in Tokyo.

The Council is also supporting various competitions of excellence in French either by joining at the award ceremony or as jury members. The Japanese presence was the darling of the French media. This project provided a unique experience for a group of young Japanese to make various presentations about Japan in French and to fully participate in this Forum with over 1, French speaking participants from five continents.

We can count on the support of these new young ambassadors of La Francophonie in Japan. 安倍晋三首相事務所からは、 フランコフォニーに対 し異例なほどオープンな協力体勢を得ている。事 実、広報室にはフランコフォニー担当官が1名置か れている。加えて、 アフリカ開発会議(TICAD) を通 したアフリカ諸国に対する日本政府のコミットメン トは、 オープンな対話の表れでもある。. 実際、 日本におけるフランコフォニー の波及の兆しは見えている。 フランス語がオリンピック公用語の1つである事か ら、 年の東京オリンピック開催決定も嬉しいニュ ースである。 その上、 参加国の三分の一が国際フランコ フォニー機構 OIF に所属している。 この点をふまえ、 日 本フランコフォニー振興会議では、 日本の異文化交流 を促進し、 また、 オリンピックが大成功を収められるよ う東京都と緊密に協力していきたいと考えている。 当初からのヴィジョン. 日本フランコフォニー振興会議は、23カ国と日本 国内の国際フランコフォニー機構加盟機関のもと 年6月に発足した。 この発足に先立ち、前年に モントルーで開催された第13回フランコフォニー サミットでは、国際フランコフォニー加盟国に対し 海外におけるフランコフォニー振興に向けて努力を.

結集するよう訴え、 1つの決議を発効した。 また、日本では数年前に、千人以上の日本国内の フランス語教員を束ねる日本フランス語教育学会 (SJDF)により、 フランコフォニー会議を設立しフ ランス語振興のため力を合わせようという最初のア イデアが生まれた。 日本フランコフォニー振興会議 の主要な協力者として、 アンスティテュ・フランセ日 本、 日仏会館、TV5日本を挙げておきたい。 フランコフォニーに対し日本人の興味を引くという事. フランコフォニーの活動として、 日本フランコフォニ ー振興会議では広く一般の関心を高め、学生や大 学を助成していきたいと考えている。東京では国際 フランコフォニーの日を祝って、毎年千人近くの人 達が参加している。 また、 日本フランス語教育学会 の協力の下、6年前より日本国内の大学にて 「フラン コフォニーを発見しよう」 を開催している。その他、 授賞式やコンクール選考委員としての参加など、様 々なフランス語コンクールを賛助する予定である。 今年、 日本フランコフォニー振興会議は安倍首相事務 所と緊密に協力し、 ベルギーのリエージュで行われた 第2回フランス語世界フォーラムへ向けて日本の若者 7名による代表団を結成した。 日本の参加はフランス 語圏のメディアから大歓迎され、 このプロジェクトは見 事に成功を収めた。 世界五大陸から名を越える フランス語圏の参加者が集うフォーラムで、 日本の若 者が貴重な経験を得られた事が重要であると考えて いる。 日本国内のフランコフォニーの、 この新しく若い 大使達が今後私たちの支えとなっていくことだろう。 最後に、 日本フランコフォニー振興会議は、 ベトナム のハノイにある国際フランコフォニー機構のアジア太 平洋事務局との連携を維持している事を述べておく。.

国際協力大 臣 からのメッセージ H. First, how to imagine that Japan would hold the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo? How to conceive the possibility of having a successful joint project with the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan in sending a delegation of seven young Japanese at the 2nd French Language World Forum in Belgium in July ? I have always been convinced that joining our efforts around the strength and values of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF would contribute to advance the dialogue of culture between nations.

In fact, unity is our strength. The digital era made distance disappear but made us aware of the pluralistic and multilingual world we live in. French is one of the most studied languages in Japan.

And the presence of TV5Monde in Japan is the reminder of the existence of one million French speaking potential viewers in Japan and probably one of the best tools to discover the extent of the Francophone presence across the world.

I still believe that to fully present the francophone experience in Japan, it is for us to illustrate, disseminate, in the era of globalization, more than the language itself, but the ideas, values and beliefs it conveys.

La Francophonie is enriched by its diversity of cultures. It offers a unique perspective to understand identities in a pluralistic world. Ahmed Araita Ali right , Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Djibouti to Japan. Nurturing the spirit of tolerance, collaboration and solidarity it contributes to live in peace in harmony.

In my own country, in Djibouti, we are helping over 30, refugees mainly from Yemen and Somalia. Without leadership and help from countries such as Japan to share the burden with us, it would be difficult to do more. I attended a speech recently given by the Governor of Tokyo, Mr.

Yoichi Masuzoe. He mentioned that linguistic and cultural barriers might be a challenge for Japanese in welcoming the world at the Olympics. We were thrilled over the meeting between the Belgium Prime Minister Mr.

Charles Michel,. and Japanese Prime Minister, Mr. Shinzo Abe, discussing bilateral relations and mentioning about the Japanese presence at the 2nd French Language World Forum in Belgium. To conclude, the Council is ready to expand its networking activities and be pro-active in sharing its expertise in intercultural relations and promoting cultural diversity.

第2回世界フランス語フォーラムが 年7月20日~23日にベルギーの リエージュで開催されました。参加し た日本代表団のメンバーの心には、 記念すべき成功体験として長く刻ま れることでしょう。. 今回リエージュで行われたフォーラムに参加したこ とで、様々な地域や、 ステータスの人と出会え、大変 貴重な経験をすることができました。 フランス語話 者、 とりわけフランス語を外国語として学んだ人の 数に驚愕し、世界におけるフランス語の影響力や、 フランス語ネットワークの広さを実感しました。.

even young Japanese worked hard in preparing for a 90 minute presentation on Japan. Each of them presented on a topic of their choice related to Japanese culture, economy and society. The audience for this well attended session was mostly native French speakers from all parts of the world.

The following examples show the originality of topics on Japan, chosen by each participant. In their talks, each presenter mentioned what they had gained from studying the French language. Learning a foreign language is both rewarding and can provide a greater understanding about how Japan is perceived from abroad, as well as the role it plays in the world. French is an official language of the Olympics and a third of all participating countries are members of the International Organisation for La Francophonie.

Another student drew inspiration from her knowledge of the efforts being made to promote French language studies in Japan, to describe her vision of how to improve the teaching of Japanese abroad. She stressed the lack of qualified Japanese language teachers to respond to the demand, as there are currently four million people learning Japanese abroad. A Japanese participant who wants to promote tourism in Japan, asked young francophone people what type of activities they would be looking to do if they visited Japan.

He mentioned that Japan aims to attract 20 million tourists by However, he argued that in order to achieve this goal Japan needs to be able to communicate its message in many languages, including French language, which is spoken on all five continents.

The role of women in the economy as well as corporate governance reforms have become hot topics of debate in Japan. A Japanese participant suggested that it would be beneficial for young francophone to know about these issues.

She proposed using the French Language World Forum as a platform for gathering and sharing information, so that French speaking Japanese can learn about methods of good corporate governance from francophone countries. One young Japanese woman spoke about her experience in Cambodia as a volunteer with a French NGO.

She combined her knowledge of French with kamishibai, the art of storytelling from images that is a tradition in Japan.

How to improve the Japanese education system? This was the question posed by a Japanese participant who studied in a French speaking country for one year. He suggested that the best education system might be achieved by combining aspects of the Japanese and Western education systems.

He stressed the importance of developing skills in critical thinking among Japanese students and the need to maintain personal qualities such as self-discipline, and striving for perfection, which argued are traditional Japanese values. Lastly a Japanese student told the audience that her interest in photography was her primary motivation for learning French.

She said she always felt to be an affinity between the Arts and the French language. She said that currently, she faces the dilemma of whether to work as a photographer or choose a more secure career. She believes that learning French has allowed her to acquire a different set of values and a new way of thinking. This project was made possible with special collaboration from the Global Communications Office of Prime Minister Abe, and also thanks to the contribution made by Turkish Airlines.

当に、 日本人の若者たち7人は、90 分間に及ぶ日本に関するプレゼン テーション・セッションのため、熱心 に準備に取り組んできました。各メ ンバーが日本に関連した文化、経済、 社会などのトピックから1つを選んでプレゼンを行い、 世界各地から集まったフランス語を母語とする多く の人々が耳を傾けました。. 以下に紹介する事例からは、各参加者が選んだ日 本に関するトピックの独創性が伝わってきます。皆、 フランス語を学ぶ中で付加価値として得たものにつ いて話しています。外国語を学ぶことは、有意義な体 験となり得るものです。 そして、世界の中における日 本という認識や、世界の中で日本が果たす役割につ いて、 より深く理解できるようになります。. ス語を話す日本人がフランス語圏の国々から 良いコーポレートガバナンスについて学べる ようになるでしょう。. オリンピック開催を控え、神戸から参加した 女性は、年東京五輪で日仏通訳を目指 すと話しました。 フランス語はオリンピック公 用語ですし、五輪参加国の3分の1は国際フ ランコフォニー機構の加盟国です。 日本でフランス語学習を推進する取り組みに ついて知っているという参加者は、 それをひら めきの源として、海外で日本語を教える活動 をどのように向上させることができるかを論 じました。 この女性は、需要に応えられる質の 高い日本語教師が不足していることを強調し ました。現在、海外では万人が日本語を 学んでいます。 日本の観光業界を活性化させたいという参 加者は、若いフランス語話者たちに、 日本に来 たらどんなことをしてみたいか尋ねました。 こ の男性によれば、 日本は年までに 万人の観光客を誘致したい考えです。 しかし、 それを達成するためには、日本はたくさんの 言語で発信することを学ばなければなりませ ん。それらの言語の中には5大陸の全てで話 されているフランス語も含まれています。 経済における女性の役割とコーポレートガバ ナンスの改革は、 日本で注目の話題となって います。 ある日本人参加者の女性は、世界各 地の若いフランス語話者もこうした問題をも っとよく知るべきだと述べ、世界フランス語フ ォーラムの場を活用して情報を収集・共有す ることを提案しました。 この方法なら、 フラン.

ある若い日本人女性は、 フランスのNGOを通 じてカンボジアでボランティアをした経験を話 してくれました。 この女性は、 小さな子どもたち にアントワーヌ・ド・サンテグジュペリ作「星の 王子さま」 の絵本を読み聞かせたそうです。 フ ランス語で話すだけでなく、 日本伝統の口承 文芸である紙芝居も披露してくれました。 日本の教育制度を改善するには、 どうすれば よいでしょうか?これは、 フランス語圏のある 国に1年間留学した日本人参加者の問いかけ です。 この男性は、最高の教育制度というのは 日本と西洋の「いいとこ取り」になるだろうと 説明し、 日本人学生が批判的に考える力を身 に付け、 自己鍛練と日本の伝統的価値観の極 致を追求することの大切さを強調しました。 ある学生は、写真に興味を持ったことがフラ ンス語を学んだ主な理由だと語りました。 こ の女性は常に芸術とフランス語の相互関係 を信じています。最近は、写真家として働く道 に進むか、 もっと安定した仕事を選ぶかとい うジレンマに悩んでいますが、 フランス語の学 習を通じて異なる価値観をと新しい考え方を 獲得しました。.

Nagata and interviewed him upon his return to Tokyo. HOW TO EXPLAIN JAPAN TO THE WORLD Mr. Can you tell us about yourself and your ambitions? As you mention, I am currently in charge of global communications, especially for.

French-speaking countries. Since Japan is more and more well-known, I am trying to share and deepen the understanding of Japan around the world via grass roots level activities and face-toface direct communications, as this is the best way to develop exchanges.

In the Global Communications Office, we strive to explain Japan to the world, and we have been developing tools to support that. You accompanied the Japanese delegation to Liege last July, what were the outcomes of the trip? Our objectives were to introduce Japan to French-speaking audiences, but also to make young French-speaking Japanese understand the wealth and diversity of La Francophonie and I think that on these two accounts, the delegation was a success.

This was a week of exchanges and learning about one another, and we had a very positive response from other participants of the Forum. The delegation was a first step. We are now moving toward the second one where we will keep building the momentum by organizing media and educational sessions in Japan, to familiarize Japanese audiences with La Francophonie and the opportunities it represents for the future. Japan is actively promoting itself in the international community.

The image of Japan in very positive. How does Japan wish to be perceived? How important are the francophone countries for Japan? I think this is a process that started years ago, with Japan getting more and more open to the world, notably via its soft culture. Japan has strong advantages in a variety of domains.

We have a distinctive culture and we are open to sharing it with the world. The francophone countries represent more than million people from diverse horizons, which represents opportunities culturally and economically speaking. With upcoming international events [the Tokyo Olympic Games for instance], of which French is an official language, the rise of inbound tourism to Japan and the potential of co-development, we are committed to reinforcing our ties with French-speaking countries.

Let me emphasize—we share the same values of democracy and diversity. 永田さんは現在、官邸国際広報室のフランコ フォニー担当者としてご活躍です。永田さんの 主導で、 日本政府の外国語広報誌『We are Tomodachi Pour nos Tomodachi 』の発行な ど、 日本の魅力を国際社会に広めるためのさま ざまな興味深いプロジェクトが始動していると伺 っています。 また、今年ベルギーで開催された 「 若手フランス語圏フォーラム」 に、 フランス語を話.

The Japanese delegation on the go in Belgium. す日本人の若者からなる代表団を率いて参加さ れました。永田さんご自身について、 また永田さ んの夢について教えてください。 ご紹介いただいた通り、私は現在、国際広報に携 わっており、主にフランス語圏の国を担当してい ます。私自身、 フランスで勉強した経験があり、首 相官邸に勤務するようになってからは世界に対 する視野がさらに広がっていくのを感じています。 同時に、 世界における日本の認知度がますます上 がっていく中で、草の根レベルの活動や人と人と の直接的なコミュニケーションを通して、世界に おける日本への理解を共有し、深めていきたいと 思っています。 交流を深めるためには、 そういった やり方がベストだと考えています。 官邸国際広報室は、世界での日本に対する理解 の促進に努めており、 そのためのさまざまなツー ルを生み出しています。 国際広報誌 『Pour nos Tomodachi』 もそのひとつで、 日本が国際関係分 野で行っている取り組みについて紹介しています。.

日本は、 自国の魅力を海外に発信するための活 動を積極的に行っており、非常にポジティブなイ メージを持たれています。 日本政府のブランディ ング戦略は、 どのようなものでしょうか。世界にど のように見られたいと思っているのでしょうか。 ま た、 日本にとってのフランコフォニーの重要性とは どのようなものでしょうか。 日本のイメージが良いと聞いて、 とても嬉しく思 います。 このような動きは、何年も前に始まったも のだと思います。 日本は、特にソフト・カルチャー を通して、世界に対してより開かれた国になって きています。 日本はさまざまな分野で強みを持っています。 日 本の国そして日本の企業には、 優れた長所が多く あります。 たとえば、 ひとりひとりが自分の能力に 自信を持ち、未来を形作るために努力することを 助ける 「カイゼン」 コンセプトもその一つです。 日 本には独自の文化があり、 それを世界の人々と分 かち合いたいと思っています。 フランコフォニーの国々には2億人以上もの人が 住んでおり、豊かな多様性があります。 これは、文 化的にも経済的にも多くの機会が存在すること を意味します。今後日本では、年に開催さ れる東京オリンピック・パラリンピックをはじめと して、 フランス語を公用語とするさまざまな国際イ ベントが開催されます。海外から日本を訪れる観 光客が増え、共に発展していく機会が増す中で、 フランス語圏の国々との間で、 さらに関係を強め ていきたいと願っています。 なんといっても私たち は、民主主義と多様性という同じ価値観を共有 する国々なのですから。.

Since January , Ms. What does being a francophone state in Japan mean? Interview with Ms. The International Organization of La Francophonie IOF is the only intergovernmental and interstate organization.

Here are a few examples:. That is what sets us apart! The Japanese have a great admiration for the French language. These activities gave attendees an opportunity to discover a diverse range of cultures. Council members together promote the learning of French in Japan, and represent the values of solidarity, democracy and respect of this cultural diversity.

over students a year. Finally, the members of the Council for the Promotion of Francophonie in Japan wish to offer their support to the Japanese Government, the city of Tokyo, and the Tokyo Organizing Committee to facilitate the use of the French language and the intercultural dialogue with Japanese during the Tokyo Olympic Games.

Why was it important for you to be there? We are very proud of this delegation which consisted of seven young Japanese whose presence was acknowledged by Ms.

Japan fascinates people, as much francophones as anyone else, and the young Japanese became media stars. I had a pleasure of moderating a minute workshop in which each made a presentation.

in French on a specific aspect of Japan. As for the young people themselves, they had an unforgettable experience, which means that there are now seven new ambassadors of Francophonie in Japan. Quite a success! Products from these fields are also available in Japan. Our role at the Quebec Representation. ケベック州はOIF(国際フランコフォニー機関)の 創設メンバーの一員であり、OIFの構築と発展の ために重大な役割を果たしています。OIFにおけ るケベック州の活動について、いくつかの例を挙 げてお話しいただけますか? 国際フランコフォニー機関(IOF)は、政府・地域 間の国際機関です。 ケベック州政府は年以 来OIFに正式加盟しています。 ケベック州は多国 から構成されるフランコフォニーという概念を打 ち出すことに貢献したことで広く知られています。 またフランス語を国際的言語、 ビジネスと経済発 展のための言語として促進するという役割にお いて、 とりわけその指導力と決断力を長期的に発 揮しています。 ケベック州の人口は北米大陸全体の住民のわず か2%にすぎませんが、国際的なフランコフォニ ーのコミュニティのメンバーであることは、国際 連合参加国の3分の1以上を占めるコミュニティ に直接参加していることになります。 さらに、 ケベック州はその革新的で実践的な数々 の実績によって知られています。幾つかの例を挙 げてみます。.

ケベック州政府在日事務所はフランコフォニーの 推進のためにも大変積極的に活動していらっし ゃいます。 日本におけるフランス語圏の国の存在 の意味とは何でしょうか? ケベック州政府在日事務所は、ケベック州の文 化およびアイデンティティーの振興をはかり、 そ れをフランス語で表記していることが強みとなっ ています。まさにそこに特徴があります。日本に は、 フランス語に興味を持っていらっしゃる方が 沢山おられます。私は日本におけるフランコフォ ニー推進評議会の副会長を務め、年から. Citons quelques initiatives : This year Mali is celebrating the 55th anniversary of its independence, the 55th anniversary of the cooperation between Mali and Japan, and the 13th anniversary of the establishment of the Embassy of Mali in Japan.

How do you work on deepening the bilateral ties with Japan? I must recall that the primary mission of the Embassy is strengthening of the bilateral relations between our country and Japan, both at the political and economic levels. To achieve this goal, we maintain a close contact with the Japanese authorities, private sector and other stakeholders. The Embassy also strives to deepen people-to-people relationship between our two countries.

In that regard, we work with the civil society organizations, prefectures and municipalities throughout Japan. To conclude my answer, the bilateral relationship between Mali and Japan is strong and excellent since our cooperation reach all the areas relevant to the development of Mali: education, health, agriculture, food security, infrastructure, water and sanitation, peace and stability.

On the road to economic development, the Government of Mali is facing security challenges. How are you responding to those issues and what are the main objectives of the government?

As you rightly mentioned, Mali is facing security challenges on the road to economic development. Starting in January , Mali has experienced in its Northern part, armed insurgency and terrorism. His Excellency Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA is fully aware of the challenges you mentioned. Knowing the importance of peace and security for economic development, President KEITA has worked relentlessly, since the first hours of his inauguration, to negotiate a peace and a reconciliation accord with the rebel groups of Northern Mali.

The efforts of the President and of the Government of Mali, with the support of the international community, have been crowned by a great success with the signing the peace and reconciliation Agreement on May 15th and the completion of its signing on June 20th The major and foremost goal of His Excellency Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA is.

to achieve peace, security and economic development for Mali. To attain this objective, President KEITA has assigned to the Government of Mali an action program for , underpinned by six pillars: As Ambassador of Mali, I would like to seize this opportunity to thank the international community for its support to His Excellency President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA and the Government of Mali in the efforts to restore peace, security and stability in Mali.

Mali is renowned for producing musical icons famous on the African. IOF sent an observatory team during the first and second rounds of the presidential election in Mali. It is also a good thing that IOF has taken the decision at the recent summit in Dakar to work on the issues of economic development.

This will give a new dimension to IOF. It is a privilege to be a French speaker in Japan. Firstly, it helps to be part of the vibrant francophone community in Japan. Secondly, it allows you to interact with the French speaking Japanese citizens, and, in doing so, widening knowledge about the Japanese world.

今年はマリ独立55周年を記念する年であり、 マリ と日本の協力も55周年を迎えます。 また、在日マ リ大使館が設立されてから13周年にもあたりま す。 日本との二国間の絆を深めるために、 どのよ うな取り組みをしていますか? その通りです。今年は我が国が、国際的に独立国 として認められ、 日本がマリの独立を承認して55 周年を記念する年です。また、おっしゃる通り、 今年は在日マリ共和国大使館が設立されてか ら、13周年を記念する年でもあります。.

continent and beyond, most notably Salif KEITA. How do you promote Malian culture in Japan? How is Japanese culture perceived in Mali? The Japanese culture is well appreciated in Mali, namely Japanese music, cuisine and martial arts. There are many karate, judo and aikido practitioners in Mali. Yes, you are right. And Salif KEITA you referred to is undoubtedly one of them. Malian music and handcraft are very appreciated in Japan.

There are some Japanese citizens who are promoting Malian musicians in Japan. During the last fifteen years, more than 15 major Malian artists performed in Japan, not only in Tokyo but also in other cities. Many Japanese citizens travel to Mali to learn music, dance and drumming.

There is also a Malian band composed of a kora player and a drummer living in Tokyo. The Embassy of Mali supports all those cultural activities. The Embassy takes part in festivals and in cultural events throughout Japan. In all these occasions, the Embassy promotes Malian arts and cuisine through the participation in art and cultural fairs, and exhibitions in Japan. Mali is one of the founder members of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF and plays a key role in developing and building stronger partnerships within the organization e.

supporting the presidential election of How is Mali and IOF mutually benefiting from this partnership? What does it mean to be a francophone state in Japan? 大使館の第一の使命は、我が国マリと日本の二 国間関係における政治および経済両面での強 化であるということを思い出さねばなりません。 この目的を達成すべく、 日本の官庁や民間部門、 その他の利害関係者と緊密な関係を維持してい ます。 また大使館は、我々二国間の市民レベルで の関係を深めることにも尽力しています。 その点 において、市民社会組織(CSO:Civil Society Organization) や日本の各都道府県、市町村と も協力します。 この質問への回答の締めくくりにあたり、 マリと 日本の二国間関係は、強固かつ極めて良好であ ることをお伝えしたいと思います。 この協力は、教.

Indeed, Mali is a founding and an active member of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF. At the political level, Mali works within IOF to promote democracy and good governance. I think here it is worth reminding that the basis of IOF action in this field was laid in Bamako, the capital city of Mali. It is a fact that IOF has developed an expertise in the area of Election Observation. IOF plays a positive role in the promotion of democracy in the francophone world in sending observatory teams.

経済発展への過程で、 イブラヒム・ブバカル・ケイ タ (IBK) 大統領政権は、 深刻な治安問題に直面し ていますが、 これらの問題にどのように対応してい ますか?また、 政府の主な目標は何でしょうか? たった今おっしゃったように、マリは 経 済 発 展の過程において、治安問題に直面していま す。年1月から、 マリ北部で武装勢力による 反乱やテロが発生しました。イブラヒム・ブバカ ル・ケイタ大統領閣下は、 ご指摘の問題を十分に 認識しています。 ケイタ大統領は経済発展におけ る平和と安全の重要性を理解し、就任直後から 絶え間なく、 マリ北部の反乱グループとの和平交 渉に努めてきました。 イブラヒム・ブバカル・ケイ タ大統領閣下とマリ政府の努力は、国際社会の 支援の下、年5月15日に北部武装勢力と の間で和平協定が調印され、年6月20日 には残る署名も完了するという見事な成果によ って報われました。 イブラヒム・ブバカル・ケイタ大統領の最大の目 標は、 マリの平和、安全、経済発展を実現するこ とです。 この目的を達成するために、ケイタ大統 領はマリ政府に6つの柱に支えられた政府行動 計画を課しました。 世界の首都に駐在するマリの (特命全権) 大使とし て、 この機会を借りて、 イブラヒム・ブバカル・ケイタ 大統領閣下とマリ政府によるマリの平和、 安全、 安 定の回復に向けた努力に対する国際社会の支援に 対し、 感謝を述べたいと思います。 それとともに、 この 行動計画および和平協定の実行するために、 マリに 対する支援を国際社会にお願いしたいと思います。.

マリは、最も著名サリフ・ケイタ氏をはじめとする アフリカ音楽のスターを輩出したことで知られて います。 日本との文化交流はどのように推進して いますか?日本文化は、 マリではどのように受け 止められていますか? はい、 おっしゃる通りです。 マリは、 アフリカのトッ プアーティストやミュージシャンを生み出しまし た。 名前を挙げられたサリフ・ケイタ氏は間違いな くその一人です。 マリの音楽と手工芸品は日本で 高く評価されています。 日本でマリのミュージシャ ンを後押ししている日本の方々もいます。 この15 年の間に、15名を超えるマリの主要アーティスト が、 日本での公演を東京だけでなく他の都市でも 行いました。 多くの日本人が音楽やダンス、 ドラム を学びにマリにやってきます。東京にマリの音楽、 特にマンリケ (マンディンゴ) の音楽を演奏する日. A camel caravan hauls salt in the Sahara desert of Mali.

本人バンドがいます。 また、 同じく東京にコラ奏者 とドラム奏者から成るマリ人のバンドもいます。 日 本の南の方にはバラフォン (シロフォン)奏者とン ゴニ奏者、 2人のマリ人アーティストが住んでいま す。東京のマリ共和国大使館は、 これらすべての 文化活動を支援しています。 また、 日本全国のフ ェスティバルや文化イベントに参加しています。 大使館はこのような機会に、 マリの芸術や料理の 普及を進めています。 日本に開設されて以来、大 使館は日本で開かれる芸術・文化フェアや展示 会へのマリの参加を奨励してきました。 日本文化、具体的に言えば、 日本の音楽や料理、 武道はマリで高く評価されています。 マリでも、 た くさんの人が空手や柔道、合気道をしています。.

マリはフランコフォニー国際機関の創立加盟国の 一か国であり、機関におけるより強固なパートナ ーシップの発展と構築に重要な役割を果たしてい ます。 またフランコフォニー国際機関もマリを積極 的に支援しています。例えば、年の大統領選 の際、民主主義の成功例となった投票の第1回 目と第2回目に、監視使節団を派遣して支援しま した。 このパートナーシップが、 マリとフランコフォ ニー国際機関にもたらす相互利益はどのようなも のですか?日本においてフランス語圏の国である ということは、 どのような意味を持っていますか? おっしゃる通り、 マリはフランコフォニー国際機関 (OIF) の創立加盟国であり、現行加盟国です。政 治レベルでは、 マリはOIFの中で民主主義と良い 統治の推進に取り組んでいます。 ここで、 この分野 におけるOIFの行動原理は、 マリの首都バマコに あるということを思い出していただきたいと思い ます。 この原理は年11月に採択された民主 主義に関する 「バマコ宣言」 です。 OIFが選挙監視 の分野で専門性を発展させたのも事実です。OIF は監視団を派遣し、 フランス語圏世界の民主主 義の推進に積極的な役割を果たしています。.

Mahamane Elhadji Bania TOURE, Ambassador of the Republic of Mali to Japan. ご記憶にあるように、OIFは年のマリ大統 領選の第1回目と第2回目の投票に監視団を派 遣しました。先ほど強調されたように、 これらの 選挙は成功でした。 また、 ダカールで行われた最 近のサミットで、OIFが経済発展の問題に取り組 むという決定を下したのも良いことです。 これに よってOIFに新たな側面が生まれます。 日本においてフランス語話者であることは、恩恵 を受けます。第一に、活気に満ちたフランス語社 会の一部となり、 フランス語圏の推進活動に参 加することができます。第二に、 フランス語を話す 日本国民の皆さんとの交流を図り、人間関係の 基盤を広げることができます。 これは外交官にと って、財産です。. SEE MORE To learn more about Mali, please visit the Embassy of Mali in Tokyo website or contact us at: WEBSITE: www.

org EMAIL: info ambamali-jp. DID YOU KNOW? CONAKRY NAMED WORLD BOOK CAPITAL FOR Conakry, the capital of the Republic of Guinea, has been named World Book Capital for Olivier Gallo shares his views with the journal JAPAN and the WORLD on the emergence of a francophone economic space, the interest of Japan for la Francophonie and why the future of Africa matters for the French language.

At the 15th Francophonie Summit held in Dakar in , leaders from the French-speaking world adopted the Economic Strategy for the International Organization of la Francophonie, known as la Francophonie. It focuses on two major areas: the promotion and development of a human centered economy and the strengthening of the Francophone economic space into an area of exchange, cooperation and solidarity. リビエ・ギャロ氏は、 フランス語話者による経済圏の台頭や、 フランコフォニーに対する日本の関心、なぜアフリカの将来 がフランス語話者にとって重要なのかといったテーマについ て、 ジャパン・イン・ザ・ワールド誌に見解を語ってくれた。.

Olivier Garro is the Director of the International Institute for Francophonie at Jean Moulin University Lyon 3. オリビエ・ギャロ氏は、仏ジャン・ムーラン・リヨン第三大 学にある国際フランコフォニー研究所の所長です。 この研 究所は、 国家や国際機関、 NGOなどが絡んだ国際関係の 中におけるフランコフォニー(フランス語を話し民主主義 や人権など普遍的な思想を共有する国・地域) の役割を 研究している点が特色で、 フランコフォニーのイメージを 大きく変革することを目指し、 グローバル化がフランス語 話者に付きつけている課題に取り組んでいます。.

How do you define a global economic space for the French language? Originally, La Francophonie was involved in cultural spaces. It built itself with organizations working in the field of culture. Then, it became an actor in political spaces. The International Organization of la Francophonie was set up to become an international operator, playing a role across member states on the political scene in several conflicts, and through international negotiations.

The third dimension of la Francophonie now focuses on geo-economic space. The concept of linking an economic space to a linguistic space can be problematic. For example, an investor will not decide to invest because of language itself, but rather after reviewing many factors related to each country, including its economic opportunities, skilled workforce, political stability, etc.

Language may be one of many criteria. The concept of a francophone economic space emerged quite late as a priority for la Francophonie. Even now, its definition is unclear. In the meantime, the digital technology revolution has opened up networking possibilities via the Internet and social media. As it grows, language can take some importance for a host of business activities and online services. From that standpoint, a linguistic space may serve as a virtual platform offering new and exciting economic opportunities to cultural industries.

In reference to cultural industries, I am thinking about cinema and conventional industries, but the possibilities go far beyond. Let me give an example.

It belongs to three cultural spaces in terms of being a major center of production. Indeed, Japan is known for manga, the U. This represents a global market and potential profits for this industry. We can expect digital mutations to accelerate intercultural linkages in the future. This example is significant because nearly a quarter of the comic book productions reaching the French-speaking market worldwide are Japanese manga translated into French. In reality, interpenetration in each of these market segments exists.

This is presumably occurring for Franco-Belgian and American comics being translated into Japanese too. Therefore, we realize that major centers of production, reflecting their own cultural features, are capable of reaching the whole planet.

Will Japan become an observer of la Francophonie? Recently, the International Organization of la Francophonie was criticized because of the arrival of Qatar and Mexico as new observers, because none of them are French speaking countries. Moreover, some positions taken by Qatar were against values promoted by La Francophonie.

There are two ways of looking at this situation. On the one hand, it is up to the member states of an international organization to make decisions. For instance, if France, Canada, Morocco and Congo want Qatar to join the organization, this will be done and nobody can do anything about it.

With the role and influence that la Francophonie is trying to achieve in the arena of international relations, the basic rule is simple; the more members join the organization, the more in power it grows.

Nowadays, this is an ongoing trend in international organizations and it explains why increased membership may be inevitable. This looks favorable for La Francophonie because none of its member states has ever resigned.

It shows a level of vitality and a sense of vision of La Francophonie. Japan is questioning itself in looking at la Francophonie. In contrast, la Francophonie brings a different vision. The fact is that it can increase its attractiveness. On the other hand, as a francophone, I do not have the same affinities when working with individuals from member countries not fluent in French.

As a French-speaking citizen of the world, I prefer to work and make a contribution in French. Nonetheless, La Francophonie is not without its own geopolitical realities. For example, Algeria does not belong to it, despite the fact that the country has many French speakers. This country will soon have the highest number of French speaking students in the world, even ahead of France.

the language of economics. The language of commerce is used by clients. Many foreign countries have shown an interest, namely major powers such as Japan and Germany, as well as emerging nations such as China, India, Brazil and Russia. Undoubtedly, the competition between these foreign nations is increasing in Africa.

What is happening provides reasons to rejoice. Over the last 15 years, there has been a major shift in the perceptions of Africa. The perspective on African countries has changed completely. This happened in France and it was welcomed. Africa may be the key to the future of la Francophonie. With In this case, four out of five French speakers might be from Africa. The future of the French language and La Francophonie depends on what is being done to help the development of Africa.

There are reasons to be optimistic. If Japan wants to increase its presence in Africa, if the Japanese are willing to learn French, as the Chinese and others already do, to be active in Africa, this may be promising because Africans can learn Japanese. For the short term, it may skip its participation in La Francophonie because of problems with the Arab nations. In a nutshell, any increase in members of La Francophonie is not easy.

Why is Africa important for the future of la Francophonie? Japan is already present in Africa, through the activities of the Japan International Cooperation Agency JICA. Many schools, health centers and other facilities have been established over the years. Clearly, it is solidarity in action—a fundamental value shared by la Francophonie. In terms of languages, English is seen as. フランス語話者にとっての世界経済圏とは、 どのよ うに定義すべきでしょうか? もともとフランコフォニーは文化圏に関するもの でした。文化的な分野で活動する団体の中から生 まれ、 やがて政治の世界にも活躍の場を広げてき たのです。国際フランコフォニー機構は、複数の紛 争を抱える加盟国間の政治の場や国際協議を取 り持つ国際機関として設立されました。現在、 フラ ンコフォニーの第三の側面として、地理経済圏に 注目が集まっています。 経済圏と言語圏を結びつけるという概念には、問 題が生じる余地もあります。 たとえば、投資家は言 語を根拠に投資先を決めるわけではありません。 むしろ、経済的な機会や技術力の高い労働力、政 治的安定性といった多くの要素を国ごとに吟味し て、投資するか否かを決断します。言語は、多くの 基準の1つにすぎないかもしれないのです。.

フランコフォニーにとってフランス語経済圏という 概念が優先すべきものとなったのは、 ごく最近のこ とです。 その定義はいまだに明確ではありません。 一方で、デジタル技術革命はインターネットやソ ーシャルメディアを介したネットワーク作りの可能 性に道を開きました。 こうした交流が拡大するに つれ、言語はオンライン上のビジネス活動やサー ビスにおいて中核的な役割を果たし得る存在とし て、重要性が高まってきました。 こうした観点から、 言語圏には文化産業に新しく刺激的な経済機会 をもたらす事実上のプラットフォームとして機能す る可能性があります。 文化産業に関しては、私が考えているのは映画や 伝統産業のことですが、それだけにとどまりませ ん。例を申し上げましょう。私たちはベルギーのリ エージュにいます。 この街はベルギー国内における コミック産業の中心地で、主要生産拠点としては 3つの文化圏に属しています。 日本はマンガで有名 ですが、米国、 ベルギー、 フランスもコミックで知ら れています。 これは、 コミック産業における国際市 場を代表しています。 デジタル革命は今後、異文化間のつながりを加速 させると予想できます。 コミックを例に挙げたのに は重要な意味があります。 というのは、世界のフラ ンス語圏市場に出回るコミックの4分の1近くを、 今やフランス語に翻訳された日本のマンガが占め ているからです。実際、 これらの市場区分には相互 浸透がみられ、恐らくこうした現象の1つとしてフ ランス語圏ベルギーと米国のコミックが日本語に 翻訳されています。 したがって、生産拠点が独自の 文化的特徴を反映させつつ全世界に手を伸ばす ことは可能だと、私たちは認識しています。.

日本はフランコフォニーにオブザーバー参加する ことになるでしょうか? 国際フランコフォニー機構は先ごろ、 カタールとメ キシコを新たにオブザーバーとして迎えたことで批 判されました。 両国ともフランス語を話す国ではな いうえ、 カタール政府の取っている立場は一部が フランコフォニーの価値観に反していたからです。 この点については、二通りの見方があります。一方 で、国際機関の加盟国が判断することでもありま す。 たとえば、 フランスやカナダ、 モロッコ、 コンゴが カタールの参加を歓迎するなら、参加は認められ、 これに反対できる国はありません。 フランコフォニーが国際関係分野において目指し ている役割と影響力を考えれば、基本ルールはシ ンプルです。加盟国が増えれば、組織としての力も 増大します。 これは国際機関一般でみられる現在 の潮流で、加盟資格の拡大が避けられないだろう 理由の説明にもなっています。 フランコフォニーに は有利な傾向といえるでしょう。なぜなら、 フラン コフォニーから脱退した加盟国はこれまで存在し ないからです。 この事実は、 フランコフォニーの活 力とビジョンのレベルの高さを示しています。 日本は自国をフランコフォニーとみなすことを検 討しています。国際フランコフォニー機構に多くの 国を魅了する力があると日本が認めたということ.

ですから、良いことです。 フランコフォニーは幾つ かの理由においても魅力的です。その1つに、 どち らかといえばアングロサクソンや自由主義といっ たモデルの上に成り立っているグローバル化に対 し、 フランコフォニーは異なる構想をもたらしてい るという点があります。必ずしも常にそうだとは限 りませんが、 それでもこの事実はフランコフォニー の魅力を高めることにつながっています。 反面、 フランス語話者としては、私はフランス語を 流暢に話せない加盟国の人と共に活動することに 対しフランス語圏の人々に対するのと同じ親近感 は抱いていません。 フランス語世界の市民として は、 やはりフランス語で活動し貢献したいです。 と はいえ、 フランコフォニーは自らの地政学的な現 実を無視することはありません。 たとえば、 アルジ ェリアは国民の多くがフランス語を話し、間もなく フランスさえも抜いて世界で最もフランス語を話 す学生が多い国になりますが、国際フランコフォ ニー機構の加盟国ではありません。 イスラエルも人口の20%がフランス語を話すにも かかわらず、加盟国ではありません。 アラブ諸国と の間に問題を抱えているため参加を当面見送って いるのでしょう。 一言でいえば、 フランコフォニーの加盟国拡大は、 どちらにしてもそう簡単ではないということです。 アフリカは、なぜフランコフォニーの将来にとって 重要なのでしょうか? も最近、 アフリカはしばしば良い意味で 「最後の辺 境」 と呼ばれます。 日本は既に独立行政法人国際 協力機構(JICA) の活動を通じてアフリカで存在 感を示しており、何年もかけてたくさんの学校や 医療施設、 その他の設備をととのえてきました。 日 本がオープンな政策を掲げてアフリカ諸国を支援 していることは、 日本政府主催のアフリカ開発会議 (TICAD) を通じて広く知られています。 これは明 らかに、 フランコフォニーが共有する基本的な価値.

観である団結して行動を起こすことに相当します。 言語に関しては、英語が「経済言語」 とみなされて いますが、 「 通商言語」は顧客が使用する言葉で す。 アフリカのフランス語圏は世界で最も経済成 長ペースの速い地域ですので、 フランス語の魅力 は純粋な経済的見地からも高まっています。 日本 やドイツなどの経済大国から、 中国、 インド、 ブラジ ル、 ロシアといった新興諸国まで、多くの国がフラ ンコフォニーへの参加に興味を示しています。 アフリカにおけるこれら諸外国の競争は間違いな く激化しています。今起きていることは喜ぶべきこ とです。過去15年間でアフリカに対する認識は大 きく転換しました。中国が興味を示し、大規模投 資を始めたことで、世界は急にアフリカへの注目 度を高めました。 アフリカ諸国に対する視点も、話 題の取り上げ方もすっかり変わりました。 フランス でもこの変化は起きており、歓迎されています。 アフリカはフランコフォニーの未来にとって鍵を握 る存在かもしれません。既に、世界のフランス語話 者の53%がアフリカ在住です。現在万人の アフリカ人がフランス語を話していますが、国際フ ランコフォニー機構では識字率と出生率の増加ペ ースからみて年までに世界のフランス語話 者人口は7億人に達する可能性があると試算して います。 そのとき、 フランス語話者の5人に4人はア フリカ出身者だと考えられます。 フランス語とフランコフォニーの将来は、 どのよう にアフリカ開発を支援するかにかかっています。楽 観視する理由はあります。 もし日本がアフリカでの 存在感を高めたいのなら、 そして、 中国その他の国 が行ったようにアフリカで活発に活動するために フランス語を学ぶことに日本が積極的なら、それ はとても良いことです。 アフリカ人も日本語を学べ ますし、有望な未来といえます。 このプロセスは文 化の多様性をもっと尊重することにつながるでし ょうし、他者の視点から見た現実への理解も深ま ることを意味します。.

Designated by the member countries of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF , Madagascar will receive the next meeting of the IOF After the failure of of holding a summit in the island in , hosting it next year with deepen the ties with the IOF. What will be the impact of hosting the meeting for the Malagasy people? Indeed, the Republic of Madagascar is committed to host the XVI Francophonie Summit in November , gathering heads of state and government representatives of member countries of the International Organization of La Francophonie IOF.

This will be a major global event! This is a great honour for Madagascar, and also an opportunity to show the great francophone family and its supporters, the active return of our great island, which is ready to contribute, to share and to leave its mark on Francophonie history. Madagascar will regain its former position thanks to the XVI summit. Our great island will strengthen its relationships with the IOF, especially its political and diplomatic, economic and commercial as well as cultural and scientific relations with friendly countries within bilateral and multilateral frameworks.

Malagasy people presented some very interesting entrepreneurial projects. How is the IOF contributing to promote the youth of Madagascar? They presented really interesting projects. This project intends to set up computerized spaces to connect young people in rural communities to the Internet. Indirectly, young Malagasy will receive benefits from programs supported or funded by the IOF.

Indeed, economic and social benefits will be expected after renewing and building the infrastructure needed to support this great gathering. Therefore, this represents a mark of appreciation for our island and its people, the world, and in particular, the great francophone family will look to Madagascar. Thus, there are major economic issues; Madagascar is committed to economic policy in particular, because the francophone community has a total population of million people spread over five continents.

Japanese corporations, allowed both sides to find concrete areas of cooperation and investment in Madagascar. Credits: YOSHIAKI MIURA. Educational Institution Staff and Professional Training or support for French language and French education MAPEF jointly worked out by national authorities and French multilateral cooperation. Their contribution to education is a real success! The Madagascar Action Plan was implemented in based on eight main commitments.

After eight years, what are the results? Looking back on recent history, Madagascar held a peaceful democratic election two years ago, after five years of political and civil unrest. Can you tell us about the bilateral relations between Madagascar and Japan?

Thanks to its amazing nature,. beautiful scenery and wildlife, the awareness of Madagascar in Japan is quite high. What are the key sectors in which you would like to increase potential partnerships? The relations between Madagascar and Japan are at an extremely healthy stage and are intensifying. Several opportunities for high-level exchanges occurred for both sides recently.

From the Japanese side, the Official Visit of the President of the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Dr. Akihiko Tanaka, to Madagascar in January was an important milestone to further strengthen relations and trust between the two countries. The second Africa Japan Ministerial Meeting for Natural Resource Development JAMM2 held last May has created a new level of cooperation to incentivize private investment for Africa and Madagascar, in particular.

In addition, the visit of Dr. Additionally, the second Africa Japan Ministerial Meeting for Natural Resource Development JAMM2 held in May has created a new level of cooperation to incentivize private investment for Africa and Madagascar, in particular.

These are all indicators that show the relationship is strong and positioned for further development in the future. Through this cooperation, we seek to enhance the partnership with the spirit of mutual interest in mining, infrastructure, education, fisheries and agriculture.

Furthermore, seven youth from Madagascar have just arrived in Japan to follow the program offered by ABE initiative African Business Education for Youth. Naturally, people-to-people relations are an area that we wish to support and increase.

It is through such grassroots connections that we can build long-lasting relations. It is inspiring to know that both Madagascar and Japan are committed to the continued strengthening of their relationship. マダガスカルは、 フランコフォニー国際機構 (OIF)加盟国から年のOIFサミット開催地 に指名されました。年に主催国となれなか ったマダガスカルにとっては、来年のサミット主催 を通じてOIFとの絆を深めることになります。 この ような会議を主催することはマダガスカルの人々 にどのような影響をもたらすでしょうか。 いかにも、 マダガスカル共和国はOIF加盟国の首 脳や政府代表団が集まる年11月の第16 回フランス語圏サミット開催に全力を注いでいま.

す。 このサミットは地球規模の一大イベントにな るでしょう! これは、 マダガスカルにとってたいへんな栄誉であ ると同時に、 偉大なフランコフォニーの仲間たちや その支援者たちに、 マダガスカルという素晴らしい 島国の活気に満ちた復活・発展を見ていただく機 会でもあります。 わが国にはフランコフォニーの歴 史に貢献し、 それを共有し、 そこに足跡を刻む用 意があります。 マダガスカルは第16回サミットのお かげで、 かつての地位を回復するでしょう。OIFと の関係は深まり、 特に政治や外交、 経済、 商業、 文 化、科学の各方面で、友好国との二国間・多国間 の枠組みのもと関係が強化されるでしょう。 マダガスカル国民にとっては、 こうしたイベントの 主催は間違いなく、持続的発展の過程における 大きな一歩を意味するでしょう。実際に、 サミット 開催に必要となるインフラ整備には、開催後の 経済的・社会的な恩恵が見込まれています。 した がって、 サミット開催はわが国と国民、世界、 そし て何よりも偉大なるフランコフォニーの仲間たち がマダガスカルに注目することへの感謝のしるし を表しています。 それゆえに、経済は主要な課題であります。 マダ ガスカルは何よりも経済政策に力を注いでいま すが、 それはフランコフォニー共同体には5大陸 にまたがって9億人もの人々がいるからです。 フラ ンコフォニーは世界人口の14%、世界の貿易の 20%、 世界の国民総所得の14%、 そしてフランス 語話者の総数は2億万人を占めています。.

ベルギーのリエージュで開催された年世界 フランス語フォーラムでは、 マダガスカルの若者 たちがいくつか非常に興味深い起業プロジェクト についてプレゼンテーションを行いました。IOFは マダガスカルの若者たちの支援にどんな貢献を しているのでしょうか。 ご存知のように、ベルギーのリエージュで 年7月20~7月23日に開催された第2回世界若 手フランス語フォーラムには、 マダガスカルから8. 人の若者が参加しました。彼らがプレゼンしたプ ロジェクトは実に面白いものでした。 ヌジャカとト ジョが考案した 「サイバークリック」 プロジェクト を例に取ってみましょう。 このプロジェクトは、 フ ォーラム期間中に選ばれた6つのプロジェクトの うちの1つで、地方に住む若い人々をインターネ ットに繋げるために、 コンピューター化された空 間を立ち上げることを目指しています。 また、特に このプロジェクトを導入した地域に教育の機会 をもたらすことで、国内の就学率を向上させ、教 育の発展をはかるというものです。 マダガスカルの若者たちは、IOFが支援・資金提 供するプログラムから間接的に恩恵を被るでし ょう。 こうしたプロジェクトには、 中等教育学校の 教師たちを対象とした言語・教育拡充プログラ ムや国民教育省が推進する 「国立言語学校」 計画 (ELAN)、能力ベースのアプローチを行う方法 論研究者25人に対する助成金(APC) (雇用・技 術教育・職業訓練省および技術教育機関スタッ フ・専門職育成国立訓練センター)、 マダガスカ ル政府とフランス語圏多国間協力によるフラン ス語とフランス語教育に対する支援(MAPEF) などが含まれています。 こうした教育への貢献は 紛れもない成功を収めています!.

マダガスカルと日本の二国間関係について教えて いただけますか?素晴らしい自然や美しい風景、 野生生物のおかげで、 日本でもマダガスカルの認 知度はかなり高いです。 今後パートナーシップを深 めていきたいと考える主要分野は何でしょうか。. Hery Rajaonarimampianina, President of the Republic of Madagascar and Ms. マダガスカルと日本の関係は、非常によい状態に あり、強化されつつあります。最近、高官レベルの 交流の機会が何度かありました。 日本からは1月 に国際協力機構(JICA)理事長の田中明彦博士 がマダガスカルを公式訪問し、両国間の信頼と 関係をより深める重要な一歩を刻みました。 マダ ガスカル東岸の 「トアマシナ港開発プロジェクト」 に対する5億ドル超の円借款供与は、 日本ととも に実施する最大の国内投資の1つとなります。 加えて、4月には経済産業副大臣の山際大志郎.

当然ながら、人と人との交流は私たちが支援・促 進したい分野です。 こうした草の根の繋がりの上 にこそ、長く続く関係を築くことができます。 この 観点から、在日マダガスカル大使館と日本に暮ら すマダガスカル人、そして日本の協会団体は共 同で、両国の繋がりを深め文化を共有する第1回 マダガスカル・フェスティバルを年10月15 日に都内の有栖川宮記念公園で開催します。 このようにマダガスカルと日本は、 ともに両国の 関係を強化し続けることに力を注いでいるのがわ かります。 そのことを、 とても心強く感じています。. Beach at Mahanoro, Madagascar. Des soirs de clair de lune Au souvenir des jours de moisson Mon Afrique se vit Elle ne se raconte pas.

he United Nations Security Council is the organ of the United Nations which has the main responsability of maintaining international peace and security. It is also one of the six main organs of the United Nations along with the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. Few books in print cover the practical workings of the United Nations Security Council, especially the pragmatic conditions that govern its inner workings, and this was the principal impetus behind the book by Boniface Lezona.

Through 10 lessons he learned during his modest experience on the Security Council, the author attempts to contribute to the understanding of the workings of the UN Security Council from theoretical and pragmatic viewpoints. Lesson One covers the activities and authority of the Security Council and highlights the roles and mission fulfilled by the Security Council member states.

Lesson Two touches on the Security Council member states and describes five permanent members and ten non-permanent members that make up the member council. The main topic of Lesson Three is the occupational profiles of the ambassadors representing the member states.

A comparative study shows that This indicates the level of trust political leaders place in international relations specialists.

Lesson Four focuses on the arena or framework of the Security Council. The Security Council Chamber which is specifically reserved for the public meetings and the Consultation Room are the main venues where debates take place, with the concerned players explaining their activities and deliberating world peace, stability, and justice. Lesson Five, on the presidency of the Security Council, covers the many emotions ranging from honor to distress that the author experienced while presiding as Security Council president.

Lesson Six is on political coordination, in other. words the delegates network of the Security Council Members which role is to work closely with the secretariat of the Security Council in order to increase transparency and efficacy of this UN body. Political coordinators are considered as focal points of their respective delegation. The theme of Lesson Nine is the evils that are aggravating conditions on the African continent such as war, military conflict, poverty, disease, and supranational organized crime.

The final Lesson Ten explores the threat of nuclear weapons and proposes ways and means to achieve the process of the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. In conclusion, there is a bold appeal to the Security Council to address the new and unprecedented international circumstances that are prone to rapid and multifarious change. This work of pages was published by Kojin Shoten Tokyo and would be a welcome addition to the libraries of United Nations member states as well as researchers and students of international relations and political science.

Following are some of the posts he served in during his career: — Head of the Division: UN General Assembly and Security Council, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. of the Embassy of the Republic of Congo in Japan. From to , he attended numerous seminars at the International Peace Institute IPI , in New York.

ブラ ザビルの代表メンバーであり、年-年に コンゴ. ブラザビルのニューヨーク常設使節団の審議 官である。. Ambassador of Belgium to Japan On May 13 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe held a summit meeting with Mr. Charles Michel, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Belgium, one of the topic discussed during that meeting was regarding the Japan-EU EPA, could you please tell us more about the status of this agreement?

The negotiations are progressing. Since the Japanese side has indicated that they wanted to conclude an agreement by the end of , the pace of the negotiations might speed up in the coming months, but nobody will go hastily. The EU aims for an ambitious agreement, and Belgium is very much in favor of a strong economic partnership with Japan. During the summit meeting between Prime Minister Abe and Prime Minister Michel last May, Prime Minister Michel once again underlined that Belgium would be in favor of an early conclusion of an ambitious and balanced FTA.

Our companies in Belgium will certainly benefit from such agreement, so they are all looking forward to the renewed impetus that the Japan-EU EPA could give to bilateral trade. The Japan-EU EPA should help settle some technical and non-tariff obstacles. It should be a win-win situation for both economic blocs.

During this meeting, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe seizes the opportunity to mention the participation of young Japanese people to the French Language World Forum , held in Liege last July. It showed the very active role that Belgium is playing among the IOF International organization of the Francophonie , can you tell us more? What makes the IOF unique is equality and a strong respect among the members which allows a real dialogue between the countries.

As you know, the IOF has two dimensions. It is a cultural organization devoted to nurturing French-language culture, and more generally cultural and linguistic diversity. At the same time, it is also a political organization devoted to defending. members of the IOF have established together a Council for the promotion of La Francophonie in Japan. Every year they celebrate La Francophonie together in a festival that takes place around March 20 in Tokyo and Kyoto. Recently there has been an increasing interest in Japan for more communication in other languages than English, and in particular in French, in part due to the upcoming Olympic Games in Tokyo.

Their presence was a wonderful way to show other participants in the Forum, from all over the world, that the French language has also lovers in Japan! Gunther Sleeuwagen Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Belgium to Japan. values shared by its members, namely peace, democracy and human rights.

Its aim is to foster peace and understanding through cultural and educational exchange and cooperation for sustainable development. So it is far more than just a group of French-speaking countries, as it now has 54 members, 23 observers and 3 associates, spread over all continents. Like katakana, hiragana offers a straightforward method of representing foreign words in Japanese, but these words no longer retain this orthographic marker of foreignness, being written in the script associated with Japanese words.

Perhaps one of the earliest motivations to incorporate English words into Japanese was to fill a lexical gap Hoffer, ; Loveday, ; Rebuck, It can be argued that these words, representing social issues, may also have a euphemistic function over a more literal or direct kanji equivalent. While the Japanese word has negative connotations of spending more than one can afford to, it is argued that the loanword is more opaque and carries positive, modern connotations, suggesting a planned financial strategy.

Loanwords can also be used to give a modern or international image to an item, even when there is a Japanese equivalent. A final function of loanwords relevant to the current study is that of word or language play, which is also often listed in the functional taxonomies of loanwords along with the categories described above by researchers such as Hoffer and Honna This topic is of direct relevance to one of the functions of loanwords in hiragana, and is therefore explored in a separate section, 2.

This was attempted, however, by Ishikawa and Rubrecht in their analysis of loanwords used in television programs. The debate is also a long running one, and the attitudes present in studies conducted in the s such as those by Loveday and Tomoda are still present today. Hosokawa investigated attitudes to loanwords by analysing over letters to the editors on this topic, which were published in two major newspapers. She noted that both proponents and opponents of loanwords based their arguments on the history and tradition of the Japanese language, but interpreted in very different ways.

While older generations are often said to be those who have the greatest difficulty in understanding loanwords, a study by Daulton included only young Japanese adults, and still found that that a quarter of the loanwords used in the Mainichi newspaper were not understood by this research sample. Loveday , p. He found that both wago and kango have similar associations of being nostalgic, familiar, and old-fashioned; while the loanwords were frequently associated with modernity.

However, he also noted that these associations varied with the particular word, as well as the individual respondent. The use of hiragana for loanwords investigated in this study, it is argued, can be seen as a further nativising device.

The perceptions of loanword by both language experts and the general public described above highlight the complexities surrounding the place of these words within the Japanese language. Loanwords in Japanese perform a number of important functions, and yet the reliance on these terms is seen by some as a threat to the integrity of the Japanese language. As the current research investigates a particular class of these loanwords, the aforementioned attitudes and perceptions need to be taken into account when understanding this topic.

To conclude this section, loanwords occupy an important and well-established place within the Japanese language. Katakana is often cited as being an effective method for adapting foreign words into Japanese Kay, ; Rebuck, ; Stanlaw, , although it is also noted as preventing the complete integration of these terms into the Japanese language Hosokawa, ; Kay, ; Loveday, ; Rebuck, This thesis aims to show that writing loanwords in hiragana is not uncommon in particular genres, and therefore a topic worthy of investigation.

Jaworski , p. Davies notes two general trends in the unconventional spellings she discusses; one toward simplification, by removing unnecessary letters, for example; and the other towards elaboration, using unusual letters or combinations of them.

These traits identified by Davies will be discussed in relation to the product and business names in the corpus in chapter 4, section 4. Non-standard orthography can also be found in personal writing; the characters produced by young Japanese women have taken various forms in recent decades, and have become a topic of linguistic as well as public interest. and characters used to represent voice quality, such as bars and tildes for elongated sounds eg.

He suggests that young women use these strategies to convey an emotional stance and reciprocity of feeling in their writing. Maru-moji and the other paralinguistic features described by Kataoka , were also found in some of the hand-written texts containing hiragana loanwords in the corpus, such as hand-made signs and print-club images. The images discussed by L. Print club are therefore not just a site of girlish playfulness, but a way for young women to critique and rebel against conventional models of femininity.

Miller, ; Miyake, ; Tranter, Gyaru-moji took advantage of the full range of characters and symbols available in CMC, including letters of the roman, Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, and mathematical symbols to recreate Japanese hiragana, katakana, and sometime kanji characters. Scholars such as L. as cited by Nishimura Miyake notes this habit as being particularly popular amongst female high school students, and describes a number of functions of these half-size letters.

Many represent faces expressing different emotions, but also include an expansive range of icons including those representing sports, modes of transport, and food. Features of spoken language, such as a particular pronunciation, or accent, can also be encoded with non-standard spelling.

Olivo noted how the non-standard spellings used in the lyrics to rap songs were used to graphically represent features of African American Vernacular English AAVE , for example. In the Japanese corpus investigated by Joyce et al. One aspect of spoken language that orthography can be used to represent is the presence of a non-native accent. In Japan, the use of katakana for words usually transcribed in hiragana or kanji has become a device for marking the speech of a non-native speaker of Japanese, both in the telop30 on Japanese television, as well as in manga.

In an analysis of manga featuring non-native speakers, Roberston notes the use of katakana to index less fluent speakers of the language. They differ from subtitles aimed at the hard of hearing in being only a selection of the spoken dialogue, and the variety of colours, fonts and sizes utilized for these transcriptions. The orthographic representations of foreign-ness and nativeness were also explored in a study of German punk fanzines 31 conducted by Androutsopoulos , p.

On the other hand, the same strategy of indigenized orthography can be used to mark the speech of the uninitiated of the subculture, representing a cultural gap between the in-group and the out-group. This is discussed in section 6. The examples of non-standard orthography described in this section cover a range of different aspects of writing systems and appear in different genres. However, the sophisticated linguistic commentary on these commercials by young viewers suggested that this demographic held a nuanced understanding of the stylistic affordances of text-speak, rather than being evidence of language decline.

Gottlieb b , in writing about the Japanese context of CMC in particular, also suggests that individuals are able to compartmentalize their language practices, and know what kinds of language use are appropriate in different circumstances Gottlieb, b. However, there are cases where the line between appropriate and inappropriate contexts for the use of non-standard orthographical devices is not so clearly defined. To conclude this section, non-standard orthographic choices are used in a number of different genres of text, to perform a variety of different functions.

In commercial product and business names, they may be used to invoke particular connotations or to give their referents an eye- catching quality. In texts produced by individuals, they may align the writer with a particular social group, as in the case of the maru-moji or gyaru-moji used by young Japnaese women. Non-standard orthography can also be used to approximate verbal and facial cues missing from CMC, or represent an accent or particular voice quality. In fact, it is because individuals understand the standard writing practices that these examples are clever, interesting, or funny Crystal, a; Gottlieb, a.

Miller , although neither of these authors explored the meanings attached to these forms. Sometimes these deviations can be a form of language play used for ludic or humorous effect. She argues that the large number of homophones in the Japanese language provide a rich basis for puns and word play, often utilising substitutions of kanji to add extra layers of meaning.

These verbal strategies described by Nomura can be compared to the use of marked hiragana script for loanwords to highlight the presence of a pun, operating as a similar attention-drawing device, and are discussed in section 7.

Other instances of word play appear in marketing slogans or business names; Honna , p. Hoffer , p. Puns can also be found representing English sentences; Hoffer notes two examples, which he sees as significant as the reading follows the English grammatical order. Similar bilingual puns have been found in German newspapers. He 33 Honna does not describe in which script s this phrase was written. Knospe , p. Some of the loanwords in hiragana collected for this study also contain this type of word play, which is only perceptible in the written form, and are described in section 4.

The role of hiragana loanwords as markers of language play is discussed across all layers of the findings in section 7. Like the choice of script in Japanese, the choice of typeface can add an extra layer of meaning to the linguistic information encoded in the word. Of course, creators of Japanese texts can also choose from a variety of typefaces besides their choice of script; these choices may support or re- contextualize the connotations associated with the script used as highlighted by the case studies described in section 4.

While typography is not often considered relevant to the field of linguistics, some scholars have argued that these disciplines have much to offer each other. Typography also operates on the interpersonal level; it can indicate the nature of the communicative contact between writer and recipient, or refer to the emotional state of the writer. Headings in a document are often marked by larger and more creative font, for example. In some situations, the connotative power of a typeface may even carry more meaning than the words it depicts.

They noted that many onomatopoeic expressions formed part of the image rather than being contained in speech bubbles, and were therefore left untranslated in the English versions. Huang and Archer argue that this practice is unlikely to pose a problem for readers unfamiliar with Japanese, as the meanings of these expressions are expressed via the choice of lettering, for example the jagged or puffy shapes, rather than the actual words.

The connotative power of particular typefaces has not been lost on those in the marketing industry, with many companies taking the choice of a font to represent their business or product very carefully.

Typography has also been used in branding tourist districts, representing them as authentic sites for cultural experiences. In Japan, the use of a bold calligraphic font is often used in advertisements promoting tourism in areas associated with Japanese history and tradition.

Besides the typeface itself, superfluous diacritics have often been used to create a foreign or exotic brand image, described by Jaworski , p.

These are not far from the intentions of the Jewish founder of the brand, Reuben Mattus, who created the fictional name hoping it would sound Danish, as both a marketing strategy and a nod to Denmark and its sympathetic treatment of Jews during World War II Nathan, This reflects the social semiotic understanding of meaning making described in section 2.

What is particularly interesting about blackletter typefaces is the variety of associations ascribed to them. These 36 Hitler was actually persuaded that gothic Fraktur types were of Jewish origin, and ordered all documents to be printed in roman typefaces Flood, An investigation of these factors is therefore an integral part of the current research design, described in section 3.

The use of calligraphic typefaces to reinforce traditional connotations for hiragana loanwords is discussed in section 4. Japanese letterforms, of course, can also be pictorial, and Shelton and Okayama argue that the ideographic kanji characters in particular blur the boundary between pictures and writing. These examples, the authors argue, are more than simple rebuses, they highlight the ambivalent status of Japanese kanji characters between pictures and language.

As stated at the beginning of this section, an investigation of the connotative uses of typography is at best a parallel case to the associations produced by the Japanese scripts. However, there is at least one example of a particular typeface being used to mark foreign words, in the same way katakana is used for loanwords in Japan. Flood , p. In these cases, the foreign elements are marked by the katakana script, while the native Japanese elements appear in hiragana.

A and M. A often suggest that foreign words be set in an italic typeface to signal to the reader that they are not a misprint. This quite banal practice is possibly the closest modern example of how typography is used to distinguish words of foreign origin, in a similar way to how katakana is used to distinguish foreign words in the Japanese writing system. Two domains of use most relevant to the current research project are computer-mediated communication CMC and marketing. There are other examples of the translingual use of English use in Japan; as early as , for example, Haarmann noted that English was used in fashion magazines even in connection with items associated with Japanese culture such as kimonos.

Pennycook argues that the appropriation of the English language is not imperfect copying from a native- speaker standard, but that through the act of repetition, new local meanings situated in local practices are being created. Furthermore, these activities are parts of bundled practices, and as such they are always social, always historical, and always local. Pennycook, , p. Loanwords in hiragana therefore represent a significant aspect of translingual language practice, a theme which will be drawn upon throughout the current research project, and revisited in the discussion chapter, section 7.

Social semiotics, and the related fields of multimodality and SFL, all share an emphasis on the social basis of meaning making, as well as the importance of context in understanding the meanings being made. For this reason, it was important to investigate the opinions of native Japanese language users, as the intended audience of these texts, in understanding the meanings created by loanwords in hiragana.

In addition, an understanding of multimodality acknowledges how texts convey meaning through many ways other than just the choice of words on a page. Loanwords in hiragana represent a marked use of this semiotic resource, and therefore the particular connotations and meanings associated with this script are brought into focus in the texts investigated in this study.

Systemic functional linguistics offers a model of language from the smallest units of meaning, graphemes; through lexico-grammar structures, to discourse-semantics, as well as illustrating the relationships to the contexts of situation and culture. The literature on the Japanese writing system and on loanwords in particular serves to situate this study in its historic and linguistic context.

While script use is relatively prescribed in Japan today, it is important to remember that loanwords have been represented in many different ways throughout the course of Japanese history. Marked language can show group solidarity in personal communications, or be used to highlight particular pronunciation or voice quality in written texts.

It can also be used to draw attention to the presence of language play, as the large number of homonyms in Japanese make the language fertile ground for puns, and are reflected in texts as diverse as classical literature and contemporary marketing slogans. While Japan is unusual in that it has a variety of scripts to choose from, each with different histories and associations, a review of the typography literature was useful in demonstrating a parallel context in which letter forms can be pictorial, and influence the associations of a piece of text.

Finally, the changing status of English in the increasingly globalized world represents the greater context in which loanwords in hiragana are occurring. As English becomes increasingly used around the world, indigenized varieties gain acceptance, and embrace their local traits with more confidence. Given the theoretical concerns outlined above, this study seeks to address the research questions stated previously in section 1. The research design and methodology that have been developed to address these research questions are outlined in the following chapter.

While Jewitt , p. These suggestions have guided the design of the current research project, which will be illustrated in the following sections. Firstly, a brief explanation of relevant terminology is given. This is followed by the epistemological background of the study, which justifies the choice of a mixed-methods approach, and describes its application in the current research project.

An overview of the research design as a whole is then given, before the data collection and analysis procedures for each of the layers are described. These include a corpus analysis of a collection of texts containing loanwords in hiragana layer 1 , a set of case studies of individual texts layer 2 , an online survey layer 3 , and a series of interviews layer 4. As this study takes a social semiotic approach to understanding how meanings are made, terms describing signs and their forms should be interpreted within this context.

Knowing which of these epistemologies the researcher identifies with will indicate the research paradigms relevant to the study, and suggest methodologies to best achieve the goals of the research project. An objectivist position holds that reality exists independently of consciousness; research aligned with this epistemology sets out to find an objective truth.

There can therefore be multiple interpretations reflecting the same object or phenomenon Gray Researchers interested in investigating how different individuals understand the worlds in which they live would be likely to adopt a qualitatively oriented approach to research design, so that the nature of individual differences can be explored in depth.

Social semiotics section 2. Despite claims of their fundamental irreconcilability see Gray [] for examples , combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies through the use of a mixed-methods approach can provide both breadth and depth of understanding with respect to the phenomena under investigation.

A mixed-methods research design which contained elements of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches was therefore chosen for the current study as it would provide the most comprehensive understanding of issues of the representation and interpretation of loanwords in hiragana.

With no previous research having been conducted on this phenomenon, it was vital to approach this topic from various angles, to obtain the fullest understanding of this practice. interviews and surveys ; or two types of data analysis statistical and thematic. All of these elements are included in the current study, and will be described in the following section.

The following research questions are proposed: 1. The model of language proposed by Halliday described in Eggins, provides a useful contextualization of the research questions, and is reproduced again below in figure 3. The hiragana characters, or graphemes, in combination with particular lexical items, loanwords, form the focus of this study.

Figure 3. These aspects relate to the lexico- grammatical level of the above diagram. At the innermost level, another graphological feature of loanwords in hiragana can be examined, which contributes to describing typical features of these words. This relates to the lengthening of vowel sounds; namely whether they are lengthened with an extra vowel, in the manner of Japanese words in hiragana, or with a bar as loanwords in katakana usually are.

In order to investigate these graphological and lexico-grammatical features of loanwords in hiragana, a corpus of texts containing these words was assembled and examined. Descriptive statistics were the main form of data output from this part of the analysis, making this a quantitative aspect of the overall study. The second research question is designed to ascertain the contexts in which loanwords in hiragana are usually found.

This relates to the outermost triangle in diagram 3. SFL defines genres as sets of register variables which co-occur regularly in a culture and have become sedimented and are thus easily identifiable by members of that culture Eggins, The third research question addresses the reasons loanwords appear in hiragana.

Corpus based studies such as those conducted by Joyce et al. One method of investigating the use of hiragana for loanwords was the use of case studies of individual texts from the corpus layer 1.

Case studies allow a deeper understanding of a given process or text than other methods such as surveys can provide Woodside, The case study data therefore complements the quantitative descriptive statistics of the corpus produced in layer 1, which could not take these individual contexts into account.

The case studies are referred to as layer 2, and are described in section 3. The involvement of members of the Japanese public in interpreting the meanings behind loanwords in hiragana also aligns with the social semiotic understanding of meaning making that is central to this research, and for this reason it was important to look beyond the texts themselves to their intended audience.

The opinions of native Japanese speakers were gathered via two data sources, an online survey layer 3 and interviews and focus groups layer 4. The main purpose of the online survey layer 3 was to gather opinions from a large number of respondents on three texts containing loanwords in hiragana. These texts were selected from those used in the case studies layer 2 in order to triangulate the findings between these two layers. The survey findings represent quantitative data, and illustrate common associations of each of the Japanese scripts, as well as the kinds of meanings suggested by the use of hiragana for loanwords.

The survey is explained in detail in section 3. To complement the survey data, interviews and focus groups layer 4 were also conducted, which collected data from a smaller number of people about a larger number of examples. The design of the questions used in the interviews and focus groups drew on the findings from the previous layers, namely the corpus study, case studies, and survey.

The interviews therefore generated qualitative data, and were used to complement the quantitative findings of the survey. Details of the interview design and procedure can be found in section 3. The case studies layer 2 also contributed to answering this question.

To summarize this section, the current study uses four different approaches to investigate loanwords in hiragana; a corpus analysis, four multimodal case studies, an online survey, and a series of interviews and focus groups. The strengths of a mixed method design include the fact that statistics drawn from large numbers of texts or participants can illustrate general trends, while qualitative analyses allow a deeper understanding of the topic as important details do not go unnoticed.

Furthermore, the research design approaches the phenomenon of loanwords in hiragana from two distinct angles; firstly by investigating the texts themselves, and secondly by investigating the opinions of the population who interacts with those texts. The mixed-methods approach to the multiple data sources can be summarized in table 3. For each layer, a justification for the particular research tool will be given, followed by an explanation of the data gathering procedure, and a description of how the data was analysed.

The place of layer 1 in the research design as a whole is indicated in table 3. Table 3. This connection between form and meaning is central to understanding the use of hiragana for loanwords. Corpus studies can reveal general trends in the ways a particular language feature is being used, and are therefore useful in describing typical features of the object of investigation, in this case, loanwords in hiragana.

This quantitative analysis of the corpus can describe features such as the domains loanwords in hiragana typically occur in, how many words usually occur at one time, and what foreign languages are represented in hiragana. This baseline information was used to inform the selection of texts for the following layers of analysis, including the case studies layer 2 , survey layer 3 and interviews layer 4.

The corpus collected for analysis as layer 1 of the research design contained texts with a total of loanwords in hiragana, as some texts contained more than one loanword.

The data collection procedure and analysis for the descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus is described in the following sections. Layer 1: Data Collection To identify the typical features of loanwords in hiragana, it was first necessary to gather a large corpus of texts which contained these words. A pilot study was used to identify potential sites of loanwords in hiragana, such as the labels of products, and the names of businesses.

The texts were collected in one of two ways, either from online sources or through fieldwork in Japan. Online data was collected through 24 one-hour sessions of online browsing that took place during The online sources included commercial websites and social media sites, primarily facebook and twitter.

Miller The print club images were also important as they were one of the few sources of handwritten texts in the corpus, as the images are decorated with a stylus on the screen of the booth Social networking sites were another useful resource as the data-sharing culture of social media meant that besides the message posts themselves, which sometimes contained loanwords in hiragana, users included links to other websites such as those related to anime series, restaurants or celebrities, for example, which were also followed up during these browsing sessions.

In this way, a relatively broad range of text genres could be accessed remotely from Australia. Data sourced in this way were recorded by taking a screenshot of the text, or downloading an image of the item. The majority of the data came from the second source, fieldwork expeditions. The first was a ten day pilot study which was conducted in June and covered Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo and Tokyo prefectures. This initial broad sweep was vital in refining the fieldwork plan for the main data collection, leading to a more structured list of locations in which to seek loanwords in hiragana.

The main data collection took place in February , which took 18 days and covered Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Chiba and Tokyo prefectures. The fieldwork plan was designed to more fully encompass a range of locations representing different demographics in terms of age, gender, and socio-economic status in order to cover the widest range of possible sources. The fieldwork data was collected by taking photographs with a digital camera.

Efforts were made to keep disruption to the public to a minimum; for example, when collecting data in supermarkets, the busy afternoon times were avoided, and the researcher ensured that data collection did not interrupt other shoppers or staff. This was particularly important when collecting examples of bar signage in the red light districts, as customers may not have wished to have their visit on record.

These areas were avoided during their busy evening hours for this reason, as well as considerations of the personal safety of the researcher. The following sections describe what was included in the corpus and how these decisions were justified. As stated in the introduction section 1. A decision was made to focus on types rather than tokens of loanwords in hiragana, in order to more fully account for the breadth of use rather than the popularity of certain texts which used this device.

Since the pilot study suggested that the largest categories of referential meaning in the data would be occupied by product names and shop names, these kinds of texts were likely to be met in fieldwork expeditions on a number of occasions, for example the same product being sold in different shops, or a chain restaurant being encountered in more than one location.

Conflating types and tokens would therefore have led to some words, through their association with marketing texts, being over represented in the data. While the extent of the popularity of businesses or products with hiragana names is lost by not counting tokens, it was felt to be outside the scope of this study.

However, these are clearly different products, seemingly produced under licence by different companies. In these cases, a decision was made to include up to 3 variations on the same type. This aimed to capture some of the variation of these product lines without allowing the data to be swamped with examples of any one instance.

A decision was made to exclude POS material produced by the manufacturer of the product such as in figure 3. From the above explanation, it can be seen that data selection was already part of the collecting process. These are various tokens of the same Chain restaurant appears in Count once type, and are produced by the same various locations agent. These are various tokens of the same Product appears in various Count once type and are produced by the same shops agent.

flyers, represent the appearance of this menus example. Variation in products is relevant, but Brand name appears across Count first 3 including all instances will cause some various products instances only brands to be over-represented.

POS material produced by the Including POS material created by the same agent accompanies a Exclude same agent would over-inflate the product appearance of this example. POS promotional material POS material created by a different created by a different agent Include agent is of relevance. Variation in the accompanies a product use of script occurs. The online browsing sessions and fieldwork expeditions therefore served to collect examples of loanwords in hiragana from a broad range of sources.

However, other potential sites of loanwords in hiragana such as manga, song lyrics, and personal communication were not investigated. These are suggested as potential sites of further research in chapter 8. Data collected on the trip to conduct follow-up interviews layer 4 , as well as two private visits to Japan were also included in order to capture data across the greatest range of time, and from different seasons.

What grammatical class do they take? What donor language are they from? Are there any instances of language play? How many occur in a whole text? Are vowels lengthened with a bar like katakana words, or with an extra vowel like hiragana words? Which loanwords most frequently occur in hiragana?

Do the texts display any other inconsistencies in orthography of loanwords? Furthermore, some prefectures such as Wakayama were only represented in the pilot study data. Language play has also been specifically cited as a function of loanwords in Japanese Hoffer, ; Honna, The language domains described are adapted from the SFL approach to language and meaning making described by Eggins , with important differences as described below.

The final column in table 3. The coding categories will be demonstrated using the text pictured in figure 3. すいーと , or with an extra vowel as it is with Japanese words すいいと. a, e, i, o, u was also calculated, to investigate whether this had any effect on the likelihood of a particular method being used to lengthen a vowel sound.

Word Class The grammatical class of a word for example, noun, verb or adjective was investigated at the word level because the data contained not only single words examples, but sometimes consecutive loanwords in hiragana, which necessitated coding for each word.

Word frequency Frequency counts were made at the word level to see if certain words appeared in the corpus more regularly than others. The most frequently occurring words were also examined for patterns such as thematic content and period of introduction to the Japanese language. Languages represented by more than one unit in the corpus were coded into the categories English, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Portuguese.

Four types of language play appeared in other examples in the corpus. The first two, homonyms and paronyms near homonyms , are quite similar; representing cases where two different meanings arise from the same or similar sets of phonemes. Another type of language play was a lexical blend, where two words, typically a Japanese words and a loanword, were clipped and combined into a new lexical item. A final type of language play evident in the corpus was the existence of a concealed word, for 42 Renner argues that all lexical blends are instances of wordplay due to their intrinsic formation process, as described in section 2.

Truncating of loanwords is common in Japan see section 2. This ensured an emic view of the data, as the truncated versions are often more familiar in Japan than their complete versions. Coding repetition separately to units allowed for a more fine-grained understanding the extent of hiragana loanword use within a single text.

Genre This coding category related to the second research question, which is designed to ascertain in what contexts loanwords in hiragana are usually found. Multimodality, SFL, and social semiotics all stress the importance of context in constructing meaning; therefore it was important to understand the types in genre in which loanwords in hiragana commonly appeared.

Genres identified in the corpus included product packaging, menus, and business signs, for example. Inconsistency This category was used to investigate any inconsistencies in how loanwords in hiragana were transcribed, and involved three different types of inconsistency found within the corpus, although none occurred in the web page shown above. The second type of inconsistency related to the same kind of variation, but between related texts, usually product packaging and POS signage.

Each of the texts in the corpus was coded for the above categories. The full list of coding categories can be found in appendix 1. The results on the genres represented in the corpus also relate to the second research question, which aims to describe the contexts in which these words commonly occur. Aspects of a particular function of loanwords in hiragana, language play, can also be found in the corpus analysis, and therefore contribute to addressing the third research question.

The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus are presented in chapter 4. Finally, this layer of analysis was also used to guide those which followed; as the findings informed the selection of prompts for the case studies layer 2 , survey layer 3 and interviews layer 4.

A range of texts that were both typical and atypical of the corpus were therefore able to be included at each level, and the reasons for the unusualness or infrequency of particular examples examined in the interviews and focus groups. The relevance of the case studies to the other layers of analysis is represented in table 3. The case studies thus complement the corpus study by providing insights that go beyond figures and percentages, and looking more deeply into the process of meaning making within individual texts.

The case studies were most relevant to addressing the third research question, which seeks to understand why loanwords appear in hiragana.

The particular strength of a multimodal analysis is that it takes into account the interaction between modes of the texts that are overlooked in a traditional corpus study, such as colour, font, and the other scripts used in the text, as well as images and the layout of the text as a whole see section 2.

The first two layers of the research design therefore include both quantitative data the descriptive statistical analysis , and qualitative data the case studies from the corpus of loanwords in hiragana.

The case studies are also used to triangulate the findings from the other layers of the analysis, for example the non-language cues such as font and image identified in the case studies also mentioned by survey respondents layer 3 and discussed by participants in the interviews and focus groups layer 4. The data collection and analysis procedures for the case studies will now be described in the following sections.

Business signs, product packaging and social media posts were common genres within the corpus, leading to the selection of one example of each text for the case studies. Print club images were also common in the corpus, but since these texts are associated with a specific demographic young women , a more generally accessible social media text was chosen as these same texts would also be used in the survey layer 3.

The selection of individual texts within the corpus was based on their typicality and atypically in terms of the findings of the statistical analysis layer 1.

The texts used in the case studies are shown in table 3. Product packaging and business signage were two of the most common genres of text represented in the corpus according to layer 1 of the analysis, and the texts chosen show other typical features such as using the loanword in hiragana as the business name, containing a single loanword in hiragana, and having English as its source language.

The social media post was also from English, but featured an atypical transliteration of the well-known greeting. The sticker was from an unusual genre of text where the words themselves formed part of the product, rather than the packaging, for example.

This text was also unusual in featuring a verb in hiragana, as nouns and adjectives were more common overall, and using the hiragana loanword as part of an English sentence. Text on product I can furai!! Sticker I can fly!! The strengths of each approach will be described below. As explained in section 2. The four levels of typography identified are microtypography, mesotypography, macrotypography, and paratypography. The choice of Japanese script hiragana, katakana, or kanji would also be the domain of microtypography.

The authors describe how the visual elements in a multimodal text can contribute to the message given by the text as a whole, and link these back to the metafunctions of language described by Halliday The same use of distance can be seen in the depiction of objects or buildings; the degree of closeness to the viewer can suggests intimacy or distance.

Angle can also suggest relative power; a high angle puts the viewer of the text in a privileged position, while a low angle suggests the power or status of the item depicted. Another aspect of modality is the degree of abstraction, which refers to how realistically a subject is portrayed. Abstract art, for example, can represent an extreme of this continuum. Images with high modality can be said to suggest they are to be taken more literally, as true representations, that those with lower modality.

Finally, textual function can be expressed through the composition of an image, and applies both to single pictures as well as composite texts made up of smaller visual elements. In advertising, this is frequently where a picture of the actual product is shown, as well as information such as the ingredients or where it can be purchased.

This framework has been utilized with Japanese texts in the past eg. The centre suggests importance or permanence, while the marginal elements suggest ancillary or dependent elements. This can be done in a number of ways, including size, larger elements being more noticeable; placement, as items in the foreground are more salient than those in the background; and contrasts in tone or colour, for example a bright splash of colour in an image of reduced tonal contrast can catch our attention.

Combinations of the above features can represent a part of an image or text as more noticeable, and therefore carrying information of more relative importance. Framing is a further element which contributes to the textual metafunction; frames can be made with abstract lines or with elements of an image, such as a window frame. Framing suggests that elements within it belong together in some way; a dividing frame line, on the other hand, shows elements that are distinct or different from each other.

Background colour can also serve a dividing function. Frames can also differ in their degree of salience, they may be clear cut or the parts of the image may blur into each other; these cues also make statements about the relationships between the elements as either permanent or permeable. In addition, different functions can be achieved by the same element, the celebrity image may be shot at close range, suggesting a close or friendly relationship with the viewer though the interpersonal function.

These approaches are therefore felt to be complementary in expanding the social semiotics of language described by Halliday to other semiotic resources in a written text, in this case, to Japanese texts containing loanwords in hiragana.

As the analytical approaches described above have come from writing traditions outside of Japan, the findings of the case studies were all reviewed by a native speaking Japanese researcher to ensure the applicability of the framework to the current data, and the validity of the interpretations.

Layer 2: Summary of research design To summarize this section, the case studies allowed a detailed analysis of how loanwords in hiragana function as parts of cohesive texts, which complemented the quantitative findings of the statistical analysis of the corpus layer 1. This involved recognising loanwords in hiragana as one semiotic resource amongst many used in the text, including typefaces, images and layout, and analysing what meanings each of these items contributed to the multimodal whole.

The findings from this layer were most useful in answering the third research question, which investigates why loanwords appear in hiragana. While the case study texts layer 2 were analysed methodologically through the framework described above, many of the survey respondents layer 3 and interview participants layer 4 also drew on the effects of these other resources such as colour and typeface in explaining their views on loanwords in hiragana.

This reinforced the multimodal nature of meaning making, and also assisted in triangulating the findings between these layers. Its position within the research framework is depicted in table 3. Selected findings of the survey were also integrated into the questions used in the interviews and focus groups layer 4 , further allowing the findings relating to this research question to be explored in a variety of ways.

The advantages of using surveys to gather data are that they are efficient in terms of both time and cost in collecting data from a large number of respondents. In addition, there is a lack of interviewer bias, and they can be completed at a time and place that suits the individual Gray, However, a critical approach to the perception data from both the survey and interviews layer 4 needed to be maintained, as respondents may have felt pressured to provide an answer, and invented a plausible reply.

The data collection procedure and analysis for the survey is described in the following sections. It is presented in two sub-sections; survey design and survey administration. Survey design The following sections describe the questions and the rationale for their inclusion as part of the survey.

Where relevant, changes made after the initial pilot study are also described. The survey was drafted in English, and then translated to Japanese in consultation with two native speaking Japanese researchers to ensure the survey appeared clear and natural to the Japanese research population.

A hard copy version of the online survey, in Japanese with an English translation, can be found in appendix 2. For the sake of brevity, only English translations of the questions will be used in this section. Each of these sections will be described below. When potential respondents accessed the link to the online survey, the initial screen gave a brief overview of the research goals, where it was stated that the aim of the research was to investigate what people thought of different ways of writing loanwords in Japanese.

The estimated time to complete the survey was given as 10 minutes, and participants were assured their answers and personal details would be kept secure and not be passed on to third parties. They were then asked whether they wished to participate in the research Q1. The questions on age range and native language status were necessary to ensure that respondents were both over 18 years of age and identified as native speakers of the language, which were the target population for the survey.

Respondents were also asked if they would be interested in participating in an interview on the same topic at a later stage Q8. Participants were asked: What impression do you have of hiragana? When you see hiragana, what kinds of things do you think of? Write your answer in the free space below. Q9 Below this prompt a text box was provided for them to input their answer.

Although these kinds of script impression studies have been conducted by other researchers in the past eg. As described in section 3. They represented a business name on shop signage, and a product name on product packaging, which accounted for the two most frequently occurring types of referent and genre of text.

They were also typical in that they were both nouns, from English, appeared singularly see results section 4. As described above, using the case study texts in the survey allowed for triangulation of the findings between layers 2 and 3 of the analysis. In addition, the data from these questions provided an insight into the connotations of other scripts used for loanwords.

Besides being adapted into the Japanese mora sound system, this particular example seems to have entered the language through aural transmission, as many Meiji period loans were, rather than through the written medium, leading to its unusual transliteration. Although judgements of appropriateness were not the main focus of the current research, this question was designed to prompt participants to engage with their reactions to the texts, in the lead up to the follow up question: Please tell us the reason for your answer.

Q14 This was therefore an open-ended question, and participants could type their answer into the open-response box below. Q15 This was also followed by an open-response box. A screenshot of part of the survey can be seen in figure 3.

As explained above, the survey in its Japanese version and English translation can be found in appendix 2. Potential participants could then access the survey through the link and complete it on their computers or mobile phones.

No time limit was set for answering each question. A progress bar at the top of each page showed how much of the survey had been completed see figure 3. Results were received up until 3rd August, and the survey remained open until 25th October. The data was collected in cloud-based software, and the results downloaded in spreadsheet files. Response rates for each question varied between and for the questions on the associations of the scripts and the sample texts, and therefore the number of responses for each question is reported in the findings in chapter 5.

Layer 3: Data Analysis This section will describe how the survey data was analysed, and is divided into the three sections of the survey; background information, impressions of the scripts, and examples of writing. Email addresses for those who expressed an interest in participating in an interview Q8 were saved securely according to the research ethics guidelines.

These were open-ended questions, and therefore the responses needed to be coded in order to generate quantitative data. The three responses presented in table 3.

As Bloomberg and Volpe , p. For example, the previous studies on the associations of the Japanese scripts provided potential codes for this data, such as hiragana being associated with children, see section 2. Codes were regularly reviewed, and collapsed or separated where necessary. Results were compared, and differences in coding were discussed until a consensus had been reached.

For example, responses for 51 Although the nuances of these two kanji are noted, their meanings were considered similar enough to be collapsed into a single category for the purposes of this study. Finally, the code names were translated into English with the assistance of a native speaker where necessary, and appear in their English versions in the findings section 5.

For the open-ended questions on the reason for this choice, Q14, 17, 20, 23, 26 and the perceived motivation for the use of script Q15, 18, 21, 24, 27 , it was necessary to code the responses. A similar approach used for the script association questions Q9,10,11,12 was used for these questions and is demonstrated in the following paragraphs.

As above, responses were coded in Japanese, however translations are provided here in order to explain the coding process. The three sample responses in table 3. For this reason, the number of tokens is necessarily more than the number of responses, and both figures are given in the results of the survey in chapter 5.

A difficulty which arose in analysing the data from question asking why the text was in appropriate Q14 was the presence of contradictory answers. Their answers relating to the other texts, if consistent, were allowed to remain. The coding process described above was also conducted on the responses for the question that asked for the perceived reasons for writing happiness in hiragana Q The differences were few, and are also discussed in the results of the survey in chapter 5. Layer 3: Summary of research design The online survey was used to obtain data directly related to research question 3, which examines the functions of loanwords in hiragana.

The survey responses also triangulated the findings of the descriptive statistics of the photo corpus layer 1 , for example, many respondents mentioned the genre of the text or the referential meaning of the loanword in hiragana in their answer. A reason for a judgement of appropriateness was sometimes linked to the fact that the loanword featured in the name of a product, for example, which according to the results of the corpus analysis was a common use of these words.

As the survey used three of the case study layer 2 texts, it could also be used to triangulate and expand on the findings of this layer. Finally, the results of the survey were used to inform the design of the interviews layer 4 , with the texts judged to be most appropriate and most inappropriate being discussed as part of the session as described in the following section. Their position as part of the research design as a whole is illustrated in table 3.

As described in the previous section, in order to investigate the functions of loanwords in hiragana, the opinions of native speakers of Japanese were sought through two methods, an online survey described above in section 3. One-to-one interviews may allow people to speak their opinions more freely, as they do not need to worry about what other members in the group may think.

This is particularly relevant in the Japanese context where the harmony of the group is often seen as paramount. Interviews also allow more freedom to pursue topics that are of particular interest to individuals. Finally, this format may be preferred by people with shy dispositions. Focus groups, on the other hand, have the advantage of allowing the topic of discussion to be explored by the participants themselves.

Individuals can describe their impressions, and other members can expand on them or disagree, providing alternative impressions. For this reason, the role of the researcher is minimized in this format, as they are less of a participant in the discussion. In this study, participants were given a choice as to whether they would like to be interviewed individually, or take part in a focus group. This was particularly useful in triangulating the results of the survey, as sometimes the brevity of the responses made them unclear.

Interviews and focus groups also allow participants time to reflect on the questions by talking through their answers, rather than feeling pressured to commit a response in writing. This is especially true of group interviews, where participants can explore their answers together. Layer 4: Data Collection The data gathering procedure for the interviews and focus groups is described in the following sections: participant recruitment, question design, and procedure.

They were also asked whether they would like to bring a friend or colleague to the interview, either creating a 2-person focus group or adding to a larger group. This final question was added with the aim of reducing anxiety for the participants as well as increasing numbers in the interviews. Responses were requested after a period of 10 days, and a further 10 days after that a follow up email was sent to those who had not yet replied. These were targeted to counteract the imbalanced demographics of respondents to the survey, as more females than males responded, and the majority were in their 20s and 30s see section 5.

For this reason, some participants in the interviews and focus groups had not taken the online survey. Details of the interview and focus group participants can be found in the following tables 3. This format results in qualitative data that which complements the quantitative data obtained from the survey. Each session contained 7 topics, and each topic was accompanied by colour photographic images or screenshots of examples of loanwords in hiragana related to that topic on laminated A5 cards, which were taken from the corpus.

Like those used in the survey, images which made the context clear to the viewer were selected wherever possible, such as a product appearing on a supermarket shelf. Context is vital in understanding how meaning is made, as research in social semiotics, multimodality, and SFL and suggests see sections 2. A range of these picture prompts can be seen in figure 3. Refine 1. れふぁいん Introductory questions 2. Yuzu Lemon 2.

 
 

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