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Windows server 2012 foundation srv r2 pl free

 

Describe Windows PowerShell cmdlet syntax, and explain how to determine commands associated with a particular cmdlet. Describe common Windows PowerShell cmdlets used to manage services, processes, roles and features.

Explain how to use Windows PowerShell. What Is Windows PowerShell? Windows PowerShell is a scripting language and command-line interface that is designed to assist you in performing day-to-day administrative tasks. Unlike other scripting languages that were designed initially for another purpose, but have been adapted for system administration tasks, Windows PowerShell is designed with system administration tasks in mind. An increasing number of Microsoft productssuch as Exchange Server have graphical interfaces that build Windows PowerShell commands.

These products allow you to view the generated Windows PowerShell script so you can execute the task at a later time without having to complete all of the steps in the GUI. Being able to automate complex tasks simplifies a server administrators job, and saves time. You can extend Windows PowerShell functionality by adding modules.

For example, the Active Directory module includes Windows PowerShell cmdlets that are specifically useful for performing Active Directoryrelated management tasks. Windows PowerShell includes features such as tab completion, which allows administrators to complete commands by pressing the tab key rather than having to type the complete command.

Each noun has a collection of associated verbs. The available verbs differ with each cmdlets noun. Windows PowerShell parameters start with a dash. Each Windows PowerShell cmdlet has its own associated set of parameters. You can learn what the parameters are for a particular Windows PowerShell cmdlet by executing the following command: Get-Help CmdletName. You can determine which Windows PowerShell cmdlets are available by executing the Get-Command cmdlet.

The Windows PowerShell cmdlets that are available depend on which modules are loaded. You can load a module using the Import-Module cmdlet. Common Cmdlets for Server Administration As a server administrator, there are certain cmdlets that you are more likely to use. These cmdlets relate primarily to services, event logs, processes, and the ServerManager module running on the server. View the properties of a service. Creates a new service. Restarts an existing service.

Resumes a suspended service. Configures the properties of a service. Starts a stopped service. Stops a running service. Suspends a service. Displays events in the specified event log. Deletes all entries from the specified event log. Sets event log age and size limits. Creates a new event log and a new event source on a computer running Windows Server Removes a custom event log and unregisters all event sources for the log.

Shows the event logs of a computer. Allows you to write events to an event log. Provides information on a process. Starts a process. Stops a process.

Waits for the process to stop before accepting input. Attaches a debugger to one or more running processes. ServerManager Module The ServerManager module allows you to add one of three cmdlets that are useful for managing features and roles.

These cmdlets are: Get-WindowsFeature. View a list of available roles and features. Also displays whether the feature is installed, and whether the feature is available. You can only install an unavailable feature if you have access to an installation source. Installs a particular Windows Server role or feature. The Add-WindowsFeature cmdlet is aliased to this command and is available in previous versions of Windows operating systems.

Removes a particular Windows Server role or feature. It provides command completion functionality, and allows you to see all available commands and the parameters that you can use with those commands.

The ability to view cmdlet parameters ensures that you are aware of the full functionality of each cmdlet, and can create syntactically-correct Windows PowerShell commands. The ISE also provides you with debugging tools that you can use to debug simple and complex Windows PowerShell scripts.

You can then determine which Windows PowerShell module you need to load to access a particular cmdlet. Demonstration: Using Windows PowerShell In this demonstration, you will see how to use Windows PowerShell to display the running services and processes on a server. Demonstration Steps Use Windows PowerShell to display the running services and processes on a server 1. View the cmdlets made available in the ServerManager module.

At the command prompt, type Import-Module ServerManager. View the cmdlets made available in the ServerManager module In the Commands pane, use the Modules drop-down menu to select the ServerManager module. Datum Corporation is a global engineering and manufacturing company with a head office based in London, England. Datum has recently deployed a Windows Server infrastructure with Windows 8 clients. You have been working for A.

Datum for several years as a desktop support specialist and have recently accepted a promotion to the server support team. The marketing department has purchased a new web-based application. You need to install and configure the servers in the data center for this application.

Objectives After completing this lab, you will be able to: Deploy Windows Server Configure Windows Server Server Core. Manage servers by using Server Manager. Manage servers with Windows PowerShell. For this lab, you will use the available virtual machine environment. Before you begin the lab, you must complete the following steps: 1.

In the Actions pane, click Connect. Wait until the virtual machine starts. Sign in using the following credentials: a. Do not sign in until directed to do so. You want to configure the server so that it will have the full GUI, as this will allow the application vendor to run support tools directly on the server, rather than requiring a remote connection.

The first server you are installing for the new marketing application is for a SQL Server database. This server will have the full GUI to allow the application vendor to run support tools directly on the server. The main tasks for this exercise are as follows: 1. Install the Windows Server server. Change the server name. Change the date and time. Configure the network and NIC teaming.

Add the server to the domain. Task 1: Install the Windows Server server 1. Accept the license terms, and then click Custom: Install Windows only advanced. Install Windows Server on Drive 0.

Note: Depending on the speed of the equipment, the installation will take approximately 20 minutes. The virtual machine will restart several times during this process.

Task 2: Change the server name 1. In Server Manager, on the Local Server node, click the randomly-generated name next to Computer name.

Task 3: Change the date and time 1. On the taskbar, click the time display, and then click Change date and time settings. Click Change Time Zone, and set the time zone to your current time zone. Click Change Date and Time, and verify that the date and time that display in the Date and Time Settings dialog box match those in your classroom.

Close the Date and Time dialog box. Task 4: Configure the network and NIC teaming 1. Right-click on the selected network adapters, and then click Add to New Team. Refresh the console pane. Enter the following IP address information, then and click OK: o o o o 9.

IP address: Task 5: Add the server to the domain 1. On the Computer Name tab, click Change. Click the Domain option, and in the Domain box, enter adatum. Enter the following account details o o 6. In the System Properties dialog box, click Close. NET application. To minimize the operating system footprint and reduce the need to apply software updates, you have chosen to host the IIS component on a computer that is running the Server Core installation option of the Windows Server operating system.

To enable this, you will need to configure a computer that is running Windows Server with the Server Core installation option. Set computer name. Change the computers date and time. Configure the network. Task 1: Set computer name 1.

Click option 2 to select Computer Name. In the Restart dialog box, click Yes to restart the computer. At the command prompt, type hostname, and then press Enter to verify the computers name.

Task 2: Change the computers date and time 1. At the command prompt, type sconfig. To select Date and Time, type 9. Click Change time zone, and then set the time zone to the same time zone that your classroom uses. In the Date and Time dialog box, click Change Date and Time, and verify that the date and time match those in your location. Exit sconfig. Task 3: Configure the network 1. To configure Network Settings, type 8.

Type the number of the network adapter that you want to configure. Type 1 to set the Network Adapter Address. Click static IP address configuration, and then enter the address At the Enter subnet mask prompt, type At the Enter default gateway prompt, type Type 2 to configure the DNS server address.

Set the preferred DNS server to Do not configure an alternate DNS server address. Verify network connectivity to lon-dc1. Task 4: Add the server to the domain 1. Type D to join a domain. At the Name of domain to join prompt, type adatum. At the prompt, click No. Restart the server. Results: After completing this exercise, you should have configured a Windows Server Server Core deployment, and verified the servers name.

Create a server group. Deploy features and roles to both servers. Review services, and change a service setting. Task 1: Create a server group 1. In the Server Manager console, click Dashboard, and then click Create a server group. Click the Active Directory tab, and then click Find Now. In the Server group name box, type LAB Click LAB Task 2: Deploy features and roles to both servers 1.

Select the Windows Server Backup feature. Add the Windows Authentication role service, and then click Next. Select the Restart the destination server automatically if required check box, and then click Install. Click Close. Click Windows Server Backup, and then click Next. Select the Restart the destination server automatically if required check box, click Install, and then click Close. Task 3: Review services, and change a service setting 1.

In the Command Prompt window, type the following command: netsh. Expand Services and Applications, and then click Services. Verify that the service is configured to use the Local System account. Configure the following service recovery settings: o o o o o First failure: Restart the Service Second failure: Restart the Service Subsequent failures: Restart the Computer.

Reset fail count after: 1 days Reset service after: 1 minute. Configure the Restart Computer option to 2 minutes, and then close the Service Properties dialog box.

Results: After completing this exercise, you should have created a server group, deployed roles and features, and configured the properties of a service. Exercise 4: Using Windows PowerShell to Manage Servers Scenario The marketing application vendor has indicated that they can provide some Windows PowerShell scripts to configure the web server that is hosting the application.

You need to verify that remote administration is functional before running the scripts. Use Windows PowerShell to connect remotely to servers and view information.

Use Windows PowerShell to remotely install new features. Task 1: Use Windows PowerShell to connect remotely to servers and view information 1. Type Import-Module ServerManager. Type Get-WindowsFeature, and review roles and features. Review the most recent 10 items in the security log by typing the following command: Get-EventLog Security -Newest Task 2: Use Windows PowerShell to remotely install new features 1.

Type import-module ServerManager. In the Untitled1. Save the script as InstallWins. Press the F5 key to execute InstallWins. Results: After completing this exercise, you should have used Windows PowerShell to perform a remote installation of features on multiple servers.

To prepare for the next module When you have completed the lab, revert the virtual machines back to their initial state. To do this, complete the following steps: 1.

On the host computer, switch to the Hyper-V Manager console. In the Revert Virtual Machine dialog box, click Revert. Question: What tool can you use to determine which cmdlets are contained in a Windows PowerShell module? Question: Which role can you use to manage KMS? Troubleshooting Tip. The AD DS database is the central store of all the domain objects, such as user accounts, computer accounts, and groups.

AD DS provides a searchable hierarchical directory, and provides a method for applying configuration and security settings for objects in the enterprise. This module covers the structure of AD DS and its various components, such as forest, domain, and organizational units OUs. This module examines some of the choices that are available with Windows Server for installing AD DS on a server. Describe the purpose of domain controllers.

Explain how to install a domain controller. AD DS domain controllers also host the service that authenticates user and computer accounts when they log on to the domain. Because AD DS stores information about all of the objects in the domain, and all users and computers must connect to AD DS domain controllers when signing into the network, AD DS is the primary means by which you can configure and manage user and computer accounts on your network.

This lesson covers the core logical components that make up an AD DS deployment. Describe AD DS domains. Describe OUs and their purpose. Describe AD DS forests and trees, and explain how you can deploy them in a network. You need to understand the way the components of AD DS work together so that you can manage your network efficiently, and control what resources your users can access.

In addition, you can use many other AD DS options, including installing and configuring of software and updates, managing the security infrastructure, enabling Remote Access and DirectAccess, and certificate handling. Physical Components AD DS information is stored in a single file on each domain controllers hard disk.

The following table lists some of the physical components and where they are stored. The file on each domain controller that stores the AD DS information. Host the global catalog, which is a partial, read-only copy of all the objects in the forest. A global catalog speeds up searches for objects that might be stored on domain controllers in a different domain in the forest. A special install of AD DS in a read-only form. These are often used in branch offices where security and IT support are often less advanced than in the main corporate centers.

Logical Components AD DS logical components are structures that you use to implement an Active Directory design that is appropriate for an organization. The following table describes some of the types of logical structures that an Active Directory database might contain. Although the database is one file named NTDS. DIT, it is viewed, managed, and replicated as if it consisted of distinct sections or instances. These are called partitions, which are also referred to as naming contexts.

Defines the list of object types and attributes that all objects in AD DS can have. A logical, administrative boundary for users and computers. A collection of domains that share a common AD DS. A collection of users, groups, and computers as defined by their physical locations.

Sites are useful in planning administrative tasks such as replication of changes to the AD DS database.

An AD DS domain is a logical grouping of user, computer, and group objects for the purpose of management and security. There are several types of objects that can be stored in the AD DS database, including user accounts. User accounts provide a mechanism that you can use to authenticate and then authorize users to access resources on the network.

Each domain-joined computer must have an account in AD DS. This enables domain administrators to use policies that are defined in the domain to manage the computers. The domain also stores groups, which are the mechanism for grouping together objects for administrative or security reasonsfor instance, user accounts and computer accounts.

The AD DS domain is also a replication boundary. When changes are made to any object in the domain, that change is replicated automatically to all other domain controllers in the domain.

An AD DS domain is an administrative center. It contains an Administrator account and a Domain Admins group, which both have full control over every object in the domain.

Unless they are in the forest root domain, however, their range of control is limited to the domain. Password and account rules are managed at the domain level by default. The AD DS domain provides an authentication center. All user accounts and computer accounts in the domain are stored in the domain database, and users and computers must connect to a domain controller to authenticate.

A single domain can contain more than 1 million objects, so most organizations need to deploy only a single domain. Organizations that have decentralized administrative structures, or that are distributed across multiple locations, might instead implement multiple domains in the same forest.

What Are OUs? An organizational unit OU is a container object within a domain that you can use to consolidate users, groups, computers, and other objects. GPOs are policies that administrators create to manage and configure computer and user accounts. The most common way to deploy these policies is to link them to OUs. To delegate administrative control of objects within the OU. You can use OUs to represent the hierarchical, logical structures within your organization.

For example, you can create OUs that represent the departments within your organization, the geographic regions within your organization, or a combination of both departmental and geographic regions.

You can use OUs to manage the configuration and use of user, group, and computer accounts based on your organizational model. Serves as the root container to the hierarchy. Builtin container. Stores a number of default groups. Users container. The default location for new user accounts and groups that you create in the domain. The users container also holds the administrator and guest accounts for the domain, and some default groups.

Computers container. The default location for new computer accounts that you create in the domain. Domain Controllers OU. The default location for the computer accounts for domain controller computer accounts. All the other containers are just folders. Hierarchy Design The design of an OU hierarchy is dictated by the administrative needs of the organization.

The design could be based on geographic, functional, resource, or user classifications. Whatever the order, the hierarchy should make it possible to administer AD DS resources as effectively and with as much flexibility as possible.

For example, if all computers that IT administrators use must be configured in a certain way, you can group all the computers in an OU, and then assign a GPO to manage its computers.

To simplify administration, you also can create OUs within other OUs. For example, your organization might have multiple offices, and each office might have a set of administrators who are responsible for managing user and computer accounts in their office. In addition, each office might have different departments with different computer configuration requirements. In this situation, you could create an OU for the office that is used to delegate administration, and then create a department OU within the office OU to assign desktop configurations.

Although there is no technical limit to the number of levels in your OU structure, for the purpose of manageability, limit your OU structure to a depth of no more than 10 levels.

Most organizations use five levels or fewer to simplify administration. Note that Active Directoryenabled applications can have restrictions on the OU depth within the hierarchy.

These applications can also have restrictions on the number of characters that can be used in the distinguished name, which is the full Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP path to the object in the directory. A forest is a collection of one or more domain trees. A tree is a collection of one or more domains.

The first domain that is created in the forest is called the forest root domain. The forest root domain contains a few objects that do not exist in other domains in the forest. For example, the forest root domain contains two special domain controller roles, the schema master and the domain naming master. In addition, the Enterprise Admins group and the Schema Admins group exist only in the forest root domain.

The Enterprise Admins group has full control over every domain within the forest. The AD DS forest is a security boundary. This means that, by default, no users from outside the forest can access any resources inside the forest. It also means that administrators from outside the forest have no administrative access within the forest. One of the primary reasons why organizations deploy multiple forests is because they need to isolate administrative permissions between different parts of the organization.

This means that all domain controllers in the forest must share the same schema. A second reason why organizations deploy multiple forests is because they must deploy incompatible schemas in two parts of the organization. The AD DS forest is also the replication boundary for the global catalog. This makes most forms of collaboration between users in different domains easier. For example, all Microsoft Exchange Server recipients are listed in the global catalog, making it easy to send mail to any of the users in the forest, even those users in different domains.

By default, all the domains in a forest automatically trust the other domains in the forest. This makes it easy to enable access to resources such as file shares and websites for all users in a forest, regardless of the domain in which the user account is located. It is sometimes referred to as the blueprint for AD DS.

AD DS stores and retrieves information from a wide variety of applications and services. By standardizing how data is stored, AD DS can retrieve, update, and replicate data, while ensuring that the integrity of the data is maintained.

AD DS uses objects as units of storage. All object types are defined in the schema. Each time that the directory handles data, the directory queries the schema for an appropriate object definition. Based on the object definition in the schema, the directory creates the object and stores the data. Object definitions control both the types of data that the objects can store, and the syntax of the data.

Using this information, the schema ensures that all objects conform to their standard definitions. As a result, AD DS can store, retrieve, and validate the data that it manages, regardless of the application that is the original source of the data. Only data that has an existing object definition in the schema can be stored in the directory. If a new type of data needs to be stored, a new object definition for the data must first be created in the schema.

In AD DS, the schema defines the following: Objects that are used to store data in the directory Rules that define what types of objects you can create, what attributes must be defined mandatory when you create the object, and what attributes are optional Structure and content of the directory itself.

You can use an account that is a member of the Schema Administrators to modify the schema components in a graphical form. Examples of objects that are defined in the schema include user, computer, group, and site. Among the many attributes are location, accountExpires, buildingName, company, manager, and displayName.

The schema master is one of the single master operations domain controllers in AD DS. Because it is a single master, you must make changes to the schema by targeting the domain controller that holds the schema master operations role. The schema is replicated among all domain controllers in the forest. Any change that is made to the schema is replicated to every domain controller in the forest from the schema operations master role holder, typically the first domain controller in the forest. Because the schema dictates how information is stored, and because any changes that are made to the schema affect every domain controller, changes to the schema should be made only when necessary.

Before making any changes, you should review the changes through a tightly-controlled process, and then implement them only after you have performed testing to ensure that the changes will not adversely affect the rest of the forest and any applications that use AD DS.

Although you might not make any change to the schema directly, some applications make changes to the schema to support additional features. For example, when you install Exchange Server into your AD DS forest, the installation program extends the schema to support new object types and attributes. Overview of Domain Controllers Because domain controllers authenticate all users and computers in the domain, domain controller deployment is critical to the correct functioning of the network.

This lesson examines domain controllers, the logon process, and the importance of the DNS in that process. In addition, this lesson discusses the purpose of the global catalog. All domain controllers are essentially the same, with two exceptions.

There are also certain operations that can only be performed on specific domain controllers called operations masters, which are discussed at the end of this lesson. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the purpose of domain controllers.

Describe the purpose of the global catalog. Describe the functionality of SRV records. Explain the functions of operations masters. What Is a Domain Controller? Domain controllers host several other Active Directoryrelated services, including the Kerberos authentication service, which is used by User and Computer accounts for logon authentication, and the Key Distribution Center KDC.

You can optionally configure domain controllers to host a copy of the Active Directory global catalog. An AD DS domain should always have a minimum of two domain controllers. This way, if one of the domain controllers fails, there is a backup to ensure continuity of the AD DS domain services. When you decide to add more than two domain controllers, consider the size of your organization and the performance requirements.

Note: Two domain controllers should be considered an absolute minimum. When you deploy a domain controller in a branch office where physical security is less than optimal, there are some additional measures that you can use to reduce the impact of a breach of security.

One option is to deploy an RODC. You can configure the RODC to cache the passwords for users in the branch office.

If an RODC is compromised, the potential loss of information is much lower than with a full read-write domain controller. Another option is to use Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption to encrypt the domain controller hard drive.

If the hard drive is stolen, BitLocker encryption ensures that there is a very low chance of a malicious user getting any useful information from it.

Note: BitLocker is a drive encryption system that is available for Windows Server operating systems, and for certain Windows client operating system versions. BitLocker securely encrypts the entire operating system so that the computer cannot start without being supplied a private key and optionally passing an integrity check.

A disk remains encrypted even if you transfer it to another computer. What Is the Global Catalog? Within a single domain, the AD DS database contains all the information about every object in that domain. This information is not replicated outside the domain.

For example, a query for an object in AD DS is directed to one of the domain controllers for that domain. If there is more than one domain in the forest, then that query does not provide any results for objects in a different domain.

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Windows server 2012 foundation srv r2 pl free

 
 

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